Ants` Role in Nutrient Recycling

INTRODUCTION


Ants are social creepy crawly that have a place to family Formicidae of arrange Hymenoptera.They are known to seem approximately 120 milion a long time back (Ward, 2007). Depending upon particular variety they may have green, dark, ruddy or metallic body. They are holometabolic creepy crawlies having flexible significance. Ants are living together in shape of bunches which comprise of more prominent number of people. These bunches have ordinarily three castes named as specialists, rulers, and rambles. Ruler and rambles take an intrest in duplication whereas master expect work in scrounging, domestic improvement and nursing youthful ones. Ants can construct their homes in leaf litter, decaying logs, underneath the soil, inside woody stems or beneath the rocks (Farzana, 2013) unpublished data.
Ants play an important role within the terrestrial ecosystem because they have numerous interactions with different plant species, including seed dispersers, leaf and seed predators, and in some cases as pollinators (Vazquez, 1998 and Hernandez, 2005). They play important role in nutrient recycling and biotic interaction also act as predators, scroungers, pollinator, and circulate air through soil more than earthworms in trophic so (Risch and Jurgensen, (2008), Holldobler and Wilson, 1990; Flogarait, 1998; Schultz and Mcglynn, 2000; Carroll and Janzen, 1973; Holldobler and Wilson, 1994; Bharti, 2011). They are used to collect seeds of herbal tea in South Africa(Dowens and Laired, 1999) . Armed force ants are utilized as surgical sutures in Africa and South America (Gottrup and Leape, 2004). Ants truly impact the earth by making shows and slopes. For slope improvement and collaborating with plant and creature materials ants chemically modify the soil by discharging chemical. They move forward the degree of carbon dioxide and diverse supplements like N, P and K in soil. Right presently keep up the equalization of nature (Bruyn and Konacher, 1990; Weems et al; 2001). A few subterranean insect species build up mutualistic relationship with numerous other living beings counting spineless creatures and vertebrates. For illustration ants ensure aphids and other homopterans from their predators, for getting sugar wealthy arrangements created by them (Delfino and Buffa 2000). Ants are considered as bio control administrators and are soonest known case of normal control (Farzana, 2013) unpublished information.
In contraSt to points of interest, ants may be hindering and act as bothers and incredibly affect human life e. g. scents ants are the critical house bothers. They eat particular sort of food stuffs like meat, cooked vegetables, dairy things, natural item, and juices. (Roger, 1914; Bharti, 2011). Bullet ants are considered to have most agonizing sting of any creepy crawly (Clarke, 1986). Fire ants beneath class Solenopsis are one of a kind in having harm sac with piperidine alkaloids (Obin and Van der Meer, 1985). Their stings are agonizing and can be unsafe to extremely touchy individuals (Stafford, 1996). They are considered as center of the street has of small winged animals and well advanced animals conjointly risky to human prosperity by causing particular sorts of sicknesses like detachment of the bowels, typhoid fever and tuberculosis. These ailments\nhappen due to feeding and crawling conduct of ants over sputum and compost (Brown, 1965). Carpenter ants moreover act as bug that cause basic harm in buildings, houses, too cause circuitous hurt by driving aphid and scale creepy crawlies. A few ants serve as a wellspring of food for vertebrates, counting wood peckers, grizzly and wild bears (Torgersen and Bull, 1995; Kansas et al., 1989). Ants convey resistance against radioactive and mechanical harms (Patel et al., 1975). Ants of sort Monomorium cause bother to individuals and private animals (Solis et al., 2010; Vander et al.A, 1990; Vinson, 1986). ). Ants cause pulverization to adapt, rustic crops and various natural control programs are as well influenced by ants. S. invicta made various therapeutic issues in U.S. cause risk for family animal and common life (Rhoades, 1977; Adams and Lofgren, 1982; Adams, 1986; Brinkman et al., 2001). A few ants hurt the country nourishments crops for getting some food stuff like carbohydrates . (Stewart and Vinson, 1991).
More than 12000 species of ants are detailed Around the world with advance anticipated numbers of species up to 22000 (Rabeling et al., 2008). They are known beneath 296 genera, 16 subfamilies and a single family Formicidae (Bolton, 1994). Approximately 145 species and 61 sub species have been accounted from Asia by (Hosoishi and Ogata, 2009). Around 110 species beneath 26 genera have been accounted from Iran by (Paknia et al., 2010). Around 939 species interior 103 genera uncovered from China (Guenard and Dunn, 2012). Indian insect fauna comprises of 652 species beneath 87 genera and 12 sub families (Bharti, 2011).\nFrom Pakistan (Umair, 2010) took a shot at logical classification of ants in any case his work was obliged to one district of Punjab locale. But that because it may, a entirety of 21 species in 13 genera and 3 subfamilies were accounted from 4 districts of Pakistan (Umair et al., 2012). Pakistan involves an critical geographic position. It speaks to Palearctic, Ethiopion and Oriental fauna. Surveyed number of ants from Oriental range is in abundance of 3000 species having a put to135 genera and 9 sub families (Ogata, 1992).
Around 11 species were assembled from houses and condos of Karachi (Haji, 2008). Out of these 8 were imperative bothers found all over interior world. 27 species underneath 18 genera and 3 subfamilies i.e. Ponerinae, Myrmecinae and Camponotinae from district Mansehra, Pakistan point by point by (Sehrish, 2014; Unpublished information). The underground creepy crawly fauna has been removed from the State of AJK and no organized work has ever been done from this region. Ants are found all over, but in Island, Green arrive and Antarctica (Hollodobler and Wilson, 1990) but the number of species decays with expanding scope, elevation and aridity (Fowler and Claver, 1991; Farji - Brener and Carpet- giero, 1994; Samson et al; 1997).
Ants can survive in both cold and hot biological conditions. They advance the physical and substance properties of soil, plant and animal conveyances and timberland prosperity. Ants were considered to be especially sensitive to region alter and unsetting impact and for this reason have been broadly utilized as pointer species (Hoffmann and Anderso, 2003).Keeping in see thE Keeping in see thE ordered, financial and biological significance the display think about is planned to degree the biodiversity of ants from Area Sudhnoti with the going with targets:

 

  1. To investigate Formicid fauna of area Sudhnoti.
  2. To calculate differences of Subterranean insect species in locale Sudhnoti.

 

Survey OF Writing


Peck et al. (1998) depict ants species utilized as organic pointers of natural condition in numerous diverse biological systems. He detailed 141 species of ants from North Carolina and Virginia. Umair et al. (2012) have too examined species creation of ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) in Potohar Level of Punjab Territory, Pakistan . Muhammad Umair et al. (2012) look at the requested examinations of ants in Pakistan, however his examination was compelled to fair two regions of Punjab Province.
Patkarand Chavan (2014) have explored the differing qualities of ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) From Undisturbed and Aggravated Environments of Extraordinary Indian Bustard Natural life Asylum, (M.S.), India. Patkar and Chavan examined the subterranean insect populaces within the undisturbed and aggravated living spaces of his ponder region. But he did not discover any report on sort, degree and impact of unsettling influence on the vegetation and fauna of the think about zone. To begin with requested work on ants of subcontinent counting zones that are presently parts of Pakistan was carried out by Bingham (1897). This work contributed requested recognizable confirmation of around 571 species beneath 81 genera and 9 subfamilies. Mennozi (1931) nitty gritty 5 subfamilies of ants comprising of 5 genera and 72 species from Palestine. Finzi (1940) detailed 11 species and 7 subspecies from Libiya.

Chapman and Capcco (1951) detailed 9 subfamilies and 130 genera from Oriental region.Mohammad (1979) detailed 83 species40 subspecies and 47 assortments beneath 22 genera and 5 subfamilies. Hannan (2007) recognized 19 species of ants from 6 subfamilies (ponerinae, Pseudomyrmeecinae, Cerapachyinae, Myrmicinae, Dolichoderinae and Formicinae) and 17genera from Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh..Hosoishi and Ogata (2009) depicted 145 species and 65 subspecies of Crematogaster class from Asia. Haji (2008) considered ants collection from houses and flats in Karachi, Pakistan. . A add up to of 11 species were found. Of these 8 were well-known bug ants with Around the world dispersions: Paratrechina longicornis, Tetramorium simillimum, Monomorium pharaonis, Monomorium subopacum, Monomorium destructor, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Pheidole megacephala, and Tetramorium bicarinatum. Collingwood (1985) too depict ten modern species of ants. A more comprehensive treatment of the Formicidae of the Middle eastern Penisula is by Collingwood and Agosti (1996) treating265 species , of which 56 were depicted as modern. Bharti (2008) inspected altitudinal differing qualities of ants within the Himalayan area.Paknia et al. (2010) detailed 110 species having a place to 26 genera from Iran. Larger part of species has a place to 6 genera Dolichoderus, Myrmecina, Proformica, Pyramica, Stenamma, and Strongy lognathus. Bharti and Sharma (2011) depicted Myrmicaelmesi from Himalaya. They detailed that species incorporates a put with the Pachei gathering of Myrmica species and is unmistakable from the species depicted right presently, which is talked to by 14 species counting 3 from Indian Himalaya.

Sharaf et al. (2013) examined the ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) of Rawdhat Khorim Nature Protect, Saudi Arabia, with portrayal of a unused species of the sort Tetramorium Mayr: Sharaf et al (2013) report the ants of Rawdhat Khorim counting the depiction of modern species . And given 146 unused insect species records for the Middle eastern Penisula.The scientific categorization of ants known to happen in Saudi Arabia is the result of ponders over the final 27 a long time. The primary paper was distributed by Collingwood (1985), who given a list and keys to 164 species, 156 of which were recorded for the primary time from Saudi Middle easterner. Dlussky are modern Linnaeus (1758) to begin with time recorded 17 species of ants in Systema Naturae and these species have a put with class Formica. Kirby (1884) recognized one insect species Formica nigra from Bermuda. Dahl (1892) two subterranean insect species Pheidole pusilla and Odontomachus insularis recognized from Bermuda. Requested work on ants of subcontinent was carried out by Bingham (1897).

This work contributed requested recognizable verification of around 571 species beneath 81 genera and 9 subfamilies. Mohammad (1979) detailed 83 species, 40 sub species and 47 assortments beneath 22 genera and 5 subfamilies: Dolichoderinae, Dorylinae, Formicinae, Myrmecinae and Ponerinae. Onoyama (1980) distinguished 173 species of ants from Japan from which 19 species of family Ponerinae, one species of Cerapachyinae, 78 from Myrmecinae, 5 of Laptanillinae, 7 of Dolichoderinae and 58 of Formicinae. Collingwood (1985) detailed 6 subfamilies, comprises of 30 genera and 144 species from Saudi Arabia. Almost 82 genera recognized by Lincoln and Boxshall (1987) that are well known in Oriental locale and Australian districts. Bolton (1988) distinguished Secortruma\nmodern underground insect part of Tetramorium gather of genera from Sabah, East Malaysia.15,000 species are detailed by Bolton (1994) beneath 96 genera and 16 subfamilies. Ogata (1992) portrayed more than 3000 species from 135 genera and 9 subfamilies from Oriental Locale. From Malaysian rain woodland 460 species of ants are detailed by Majer and Delabi ( 1994 ) . Radchenko and Elmes (1999) depicted ten modern species of Myrmica to be specific Myrmica brancuccii, M. villosa, M. vittata, M. williamsi, M. nitida, M. wittmeri, M. wardi, M. ordinaria, M. rhytida and M, petita from mountain locale of India and Pakistan Himalaya.
Dekoninck et al. (2007) shown list of subterranean insect species collected in eight prairie inside the Viroin valley (Viroinval, Belgium) shown 30 species were recognized, checking Temnothorax albipennis, for the primary time recorded in Belgium. Ants species detailed from Central Europe are 175 (Scifert, 2007). Fowler (2008) work on leaf cutter ants. He portrayyed 22 taxa of leaf cutter ants. He recognized major pros on setting, rummaging and others behavioral trials. Ghahari et al. (2011) examined fauna of ants in Arasbaran and its locale (Northwestern Iran). Right presently, 29 species and subspecies from 19 genera and 4 subfamilies counting, (Aenictinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae and Myrmicinae) were accumulated. Aenictus rhodiensis Menozzi, Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) obliquipilosus Forel, Oxyopomyrmex krueperi Forel and Proformica pilosiscapa records for Iran. Ghahari and Collingwood (2011) distinguished the full 38 species of 14 genera from a few territories of southern Iran. Bharti (2011) spoken to 652 species beneath 87 genera from 12 subfamilies\nfrom India. O’Neill and Dowling (2011) recorded 600 ants were, 284 of which were identified to genus and 263 to species. . From this collection, 33 species and one morphospecies were identified, comprising 18 genera in total.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

The examination was conducted to investigate the fauna of family Formicidae and to calculate its differing qualities from Area Sudhnoti of Azad Kashmir. A survey for collection of Formicid ants (Hymenoptera) was wrapped up amid 2018-2019. An combination of situations were examined I;e agronomic harvests, boondocks, vegetables, sprouting plants, nurseries, open areas, and go downs. Taking after regions were gone to i;e Plandri, Mang, Gora, Trarkhal, Baloch, Bathek, Qillan, , Niarian, , Kotera, PattanSher Khan.

COLLECTION

Ants were accumulated by the help of ensnarement traps and through hand picking. In ensnarement traps sugar were utilized as draw. Assembled cases were treated with (Ethanol).The ants were assembled from each region amid the day time, starting from 09:00 am to 3:00 pm all through the spring season. In a perfect world the shinning days were picked for grouping be that as it may depending on the circumstance the illustrations were accumulated amid the shady days.
Gathered illustrations were spared in wooden boxes within the wake of staying and amplifying fittingly ( legs and recieving wires) with naphthalene balls and coopex powder were spread within the cases to shield the groupings from diverse frightening crawlies. Entomological pins were utilized for staying.

IDENTIFICATION


Tests were recognized up to species level by utilizing keys of Bingham (1897) and Umair et al (2012). The tests were furthermore asserted by reference grouping at National Creepy crawly Gallery, NARC. All the work was done beneath stereoscope ( Leica MZ75 ). The generally level of subfamilies, genera, and species, were decided by utilizing
R=n1/N ×100.

FACTUAL EXAMINATION


The rundown of tried locales nearby their longitude, scope and stature is moreover yielded (Table. 1) .The Relative Rate Plenitude was decided by utilizing the equation
: R= ni/N×100
Where "ni" is the amount of individuals "ith" species and "N" is the supreme number of tests. To find out the conventional assortment of ants four grouped assortment records were utilized in specific: Shannon's not too bad assortment record (Shannon and Wiener, 1963) nearby its
Impartially segmentsn, Margalef's list (Margalef, 1969), Simpson's list (Simpson, 1949). The sort of the Shannon-Wiener record (Shannon, 1963) utilized within the show examination is:
H'=C {log10N-1/N∑ (nrlog10 nr)}
Where "N" is the all out number of the individuals, "nr" is the rank abundance in "ith" species "C" is the change figure from log2 to log10. The sort of the's (Shannon, 1963) reasonableness utilized within the show examination:
J'=H'/Hmax
Where, "H'" is the Shannon-Weiner's arranged assortment record and "H'max" is the log2 of "S", where, "S" is the absolute number of species within the case. The type of the Margalef's record (Margalef, 1969) utilized within the show is:
D=S-1/logeN
Where, "S" is the amount of species and "N" is the outright number of people.The sort of Simpson's record (Simpson, 1949) utilized within the show examination is:
C=∑ [ni (ni-1/(N-1)]
Where, "ni" is the amount of individuals in "ith" species and "N" is the all out number of individuals within the example.\nREPOSITORY
Recognized cases were kept in wooden unpleasant crawly limits which was at that point spared the lab of The Office of Entomology and lab of Office of Zoology, The College of Poonch, Rawalakot. Naphthalene balls were given within the holders to protections the cases from the attack of bug bother.