Impact of Water Scarcity on Human Health

Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients for human health because in acting in unison, they perform hundreds of roles in the body. They aid in the repair of bones, heal wounds, bolster our immune system, convert food into energy, and repair cellular damage (David, 2017). An example of a vitamin is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, found in most fruits and vegetables, it is a water-soluble vitamin that is regarded as one of the safest and most effective nutrients. On the other hand, examples of minerals can be found in water, namely calcium and magnesium. These are minerals that help strengthen our bones in a variety of ways. Calcium in the main mineral which can be found in our bones. They hold more than 99% of our body’s calcium stores. While magnesium plays a key role in converting vitamin D into its active form, which aids in calcium absorption (Raman, 2020). The journals that were given articulate about these vitamins and minerals that can be seen in commodities and in nature. These chemicals that are involved in many physiological functions and both their lack and excess can put health at risk. Thus, the establishment of methods for monitoring vitamin and mineral concentrations in different matrices is necessary. One journal delves about the use of titrimetric determination of Vitamin C content in fresh and packaged fruit juices, while the other talks about the relation between the risk of health problems and hardness of drinking water for its content of magnesium and calcium.

In the study of Zubairu and Fatima (2019), two methods of titrimetric determination, iodimetry, and iodometry were utilized for the preparation of iodine solutions which were standardized using standard ascorbic acid and then used to analyze the samples. I think that utilizing redox titration in their experient is indeed a better choice, as compared to using acid-base titration since there are many acids and bases in foodstuffs, as well as other products that interfere with the oxidation of ascorbic acid by iodine. The standardization of the iodine solution using ascorbic acid was performed well, accurate, and precise with no room for mistakes during the solution preparation, which saved time. The method of the experiment allows students to perform the iodometric titration with precision to determine the content of vitamin C during a single laboratory period. There is also a proper organization of showing how the procedure was done. Though the sampling lacked proper identification, which is confusing. But the style of writing used is authoritative and formal which satisfies the federal requirements of writing. To add, the statistics and data that the study presented helped in the credibility and authenticity of the journal article, proving that the study was widely researched before doing the article. It is interesting to know that there are a few factors that will affect the stability of vitamin C which are storage and processing and the amount of temperature. The comparative analysis of Vitamin C in fresh and packaged fruit juices showed that tomato paste has the highest value for density, while the least is for sample 8. The fresh orange juice sample had the highest value of vitamin C using method one and was similar to the results obtained in method two. However, the tomato has the highest value for ascorbic acid among the packaged fruit juice sample using method one. Finally, the results obtained in this study can helpful for individuals who want to intake the required amount of vitamin C with the highest stability of vitamin C and at the same time is catered to suit their needs.

The study of Sengupta (2013), discusses the potential health impacts of hard water. Water is one of the basic necessities for survival. And as such, potable water supply has a primary objective of protecting human health and ensuring access to adequate quantities of safe drinkable water. In response to increasing global and local water scarcity, the use of alternative sources such as recovered/recycled water, harvested rainwater, and desalinated water has increased. According to WHO (20), 884 million people lack access to safe water supplies. Among them, a good percentage of people consume hard water, which is considered to be a significant etiological factor worldwide, causing many diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, reproductive failure, neural diseases, renal dysfunction, and so on. Hard water, or as what it is usually defined as, water, contains a high concentration of calcium and magnesium ions. Hardness can be caused by several other dissolved metals such as aluminum, barium, iron, manganese, strontium, and zinc. Hard water is not a health hazard and has no known adverse health effect, as said by WHO at its Geneva Conference. To add, hard water, particularly very hard water, could contribute a small amount toward the total calcium and magnesium needed in the human diet. The health effects of hard water are mainly due to the effects of the salts dissolved in it, primarily calcium and magnesium. Much research has been done on the relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular disease mortality. Although studies suggest a correlation between hard water and cardiovascular disease mortality, no firm conclusions have been drawn. While there is some evidence from epidemiological studies for a protective effect of magnesium or hardness on cardiovascular mortality, the evidence does not prove causality and is being debated. In my opinion, I agree with the notion that drinking hard water may be a source of calcium and magnesium in the diet, especially for those who have inadequate calcium and magnesium intake. Nonetheless, the degree of hardness of potable water is essential for aesthetic acceptability by consumers and for economic and operational considerations. Hard water is softened for those reasons using applicable technologies, and the mineral composition will be notably affected. After all, it depends on as to whether the water will be accepted by the individual user’s taste and familiarity. All things considered, consumers should be informed of the mineral composition of the water, whether it is or is not modified.

In conclusion, the significance of analytical chemistry has never been greater than it is today. The demand in modern societies for a variety of safe foods, affordable consumer goods, abundant energy, and labor-saving technologies places a great burden on the environment, raising concerns on the pollution problems with the growth of the global population. The techniques of analytical chemistry are heavily relied on to maintain an amicable environment. The undesired substances can not only be found in water and food but also in the air and soil, which must be identified, their point of origin fixed, and safe economical methods for their removal or neutralization developed. Once the amount of pollutant is deemed to be hazardous after assessments, it becomes important to detect harmful substances at concentrations well below the danger level. This is why analytical chemists seek to develop increasingly accurate and sensitive techniques and instruments, often coupled with computers in order to identify substances with accuracy and lower detection limits. The speed at which instrumental innovation is obtained becomes obsolete within 10 years of their introduction as newer instruments that are more accurate and faster are employed widely in the areas of environmental and medicinal chemistry (Rocke, 2020).