India is the third largest producer and third largest consumer of electricity across globe. Generally power outlook from fossil fuel sources, specifically in the part of oil and gas. On the other hand, the possibility of getting energy from renewable power sources has an uplifting standpoint because of the abundant accessibility of such assets in different pieces of the nation. Out of all these practical assets, solar, wind and biomass energy are a portion of the fields were over a wide period of advancement that has just seen significant achievement. Solar energy specifically, from an ongoing governmental policy, has picked up momentum as one of the most significant sources of energy for the country. Rural electrification is one of the primary issues where extra momentum is expected to quicken the procedure, as “Kerosene” is as yet being utilized for lighting as a result related to lack of energy supply in numerous parts of rural India.
As local energy assets are not adequate for the nation\'s needs, India imports huge part of its developing energy necessity from different parts of the world, regardless of the administration\'s overwhelming interest in oil and gas exploration to help in decreasing the reliance on foreign energy sources. India\'s yearly GDP development rate of more than 8% during 2005 – 2006 is a decent marker of the degree of improvement occurred.
The potential being developed and higher energy demand. By considering only renewable sources, the hydropower, which has been assessed with a capability of 150,000 MW3, India\'s other sustainable power sources have considerably higher potential, specifically within the solar, biomass and wind energy sources (Table 1) “(Source:-MNES, 2010)”. As per India\'s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, 2007, the present capacity of sustainable power source is 9220 MW, i.e. around 7.3% of the overall production capacity. “India’s Renewable Energy Sources estimated potential”
Within the wind energy development sector, India presently is reported the fourth largest in the world. The present generation of electricity from wind power was around 5 billion units of KWh per annum which has been fed to the national grid. This is mainly due to India\'s current wind energy installed capacity, which is around 1167 MW. Reportedly, however, the capacity with regards to solar energy could have a comparable potential, and for example, India has normal isolation of around 6 kwh/m2/day. As per MNES, capacity of more than 44 MW, of around 700,000 PV systems for a variety of applications has been already installed. Concerning biomass, there is as of now a capacity of more than 22 MW. The above rate target accomplished could go higher as inside the following eleventh five-year plan, the government of India launched two new additional schemes related to the field of renewable energy.
These two schemes are:
• Remote Village Renewable Energy Program (RVREP)right
• Grid- Connected Village Renewable Energy Program (GVREP)right
The Indian government has introduced a number of incentives, mainly for the purpose of attracting investment in the field of renewable energy which is very beneficial.
India\'s power generation during 2008 was assessed to be around 830 TWh, which is just 4.1% of the world total electricity creation during that year. However, during that year, India imported 9 TWh of power, which make the general total of 839 TWh, expended in one year by the entire nation. The above information give a reasonable view that power\'s high demand and shortages are significant difficulties, not just in the rural areas, yet in different parts of the urban focuses in India. In any event, when there is a power connection for provincial and urban parts, the access to power is poor, the production limit doesn\'t generally fulfill top need and the unusualness of supply, for example blackouts and nature of service causes extra issues looked by the end clients.The most recent report of IAE, 2010 announced that 404 million people in India do not have access to electricity supply, while at the same time; around 855 million people still rely on the traditional use of biomass materials, as a way for preparing their food. A comparison concerning various figures from various dates, originated from the Indian government - past and present data related to future energy output and growth - has been looked at briefly (Table 2). “India Ministry of power projection for Electricity Requirement up to 2032”.
India’s Solar Energy Policy and Resources
As a nation situated inside the earth\'s tropical region, India has huge solar energy potential for creating power, as well as for thermal heating purposes. Reportedly, there are about 250-300 sunny days per year, i.e. approximately between 4- 7 kwh/m2. As has been referenced beforehand, this sort of energy is primarily because of the normal isolation in India of 6 kWh/m2/day. Solar energy can be utilized used directly or indirectly for a variety of daily applications. However, the present PV technology in India is mostly used for domestic applications, such as for lighting and cooking/heating purposes.The above improvement got further help in that the administration of India has exhibited to their residents what they have named as \'National Solar Mission\'. The point of the activity is to build up solar energy further on a national scale, i.e. for the next decade, the National Solar Mission should be able to provide an additional 1,000 MW of solar power to the already existing energy system. Policy and guidelines are acceptable motivating for the industries, however, the reality on the ground for solar energy is not yet clear, i.e. whether this kind of support is sufficient to speed up the development in this field within the time scale provided by the administration.
Challenges in Solar Energy Project
There are various main difficulties confronting the field of solar energy in India.
• Prices are still high for low income families.
• The present solar technologies being have poor efficiency.
• From national planned, there is still low interest for solar systems.
• Lack of subsidy about the plan in specific pieces of the nation.
• Lack of information by the overall population about the atmosphere changes and greenhouse impacts.
• The estimation limit of solar energy in India is roughly 112 MW while grid connection from this o/p is just 2 MW.
Understanding India\'s present energy needs and its future improvement should give the mechanism to new thoughts and solutions for some of the issues related to power deficiencies, specifically where rural electrification is concerned. Electricity generation from solar energy is one of the fundamental focuses on the Indian government in the casing of a solution for power shortages in the countryside. Governmental policy in this field should provide superior access to residential and business divisions in making it conceivable to get power at a lower cost from sustainable energy sources.