Water Scarcity: Water Resource Management


Water resource management is a logical way of planning of scarcity of the freshwater resources available for the consumption of the whole population of the country (Owusu et al 2016). South African water scarcity is challenged with changing its unsustainability resource-intensive economy whilst it’s also addressing the legacy of apartheid (DWA,2013).According to Adams et al(2018) water is essential for life without it there is no life and they defined inland water as all water in natural and manmade inland water bodies and the current riparian habitat interacting with those water bodies.
Luvhuvhu River is the source of water at University of Venda and Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant is where univen sewage waste goes to.Luvhuvhu River according to Bapela(2001) showed that the river its affected by poor agricultural practices ,urban runoff,urbanization, and improper land use then sustainability of water quality for domestic use its threatened in the Luvhuvhu river basin.Regardless of contamination from point and non-point sources of pollution in Luvhuvhu river basin which had changed rivers water quality for domestic use whilst we know that Luvhuvhu River is one of the main sources of water for drinking, agriculture and other domestic use in Thohoyandou, Makhado and other areas in the Luvhuvhu River catchment(Bapela 2001).According to Gumbo(2016) said based on rising population,urban growth and assorted socio-economic developmental challenge in the catchment area of Nandoni.
Thohoyandou WWTP receives domestic sewage from residential areas, light industrial wastewater and wastewater from Univen and villages around Thohoyandou (Edokpayi et al 2015).The WWTP is currently overstressed(influenced) by receiving 13 megaliters wastewater per day (Edokpayi et al 2015).The discharge effluent from Thohoyandou WWTP is released to Mvudi River which is the major source of water for Nandoni Dam via Dzindi and Luvhuvhu Rivers respectively.Disposal from WWTP disposed to Mvudi River has an impact on the environment and also affect soils, plants, animals and human health around the river. (Langenkamp and Part, 2001) then Akisanya (2018) furthered this explain by saying agricultural practitioners around the river buy the sludge produced by WWTP, its then dried used as manure.
Nandoni dam depend on Luvhuvhu River for water so that it can purify it and supply surrounding communities respectively.WWTP discharge effluent to Mvudi river and Mvudi river its also affected by clay bricks industries,Carwash and agricultural activities which happens around the river which result in Nandoni dam via Dzindi and Luvhuvhu river ,which will supply Nandoni Dam with dirty water wthe being difficult for the Dam to purify it and supply the surrounding villages.


  1. Where does univen wastewater ends?
  2. How univen wastewater affect nandoni damHow anthropogenic activities affect luvhuvhu River catchment.


The main aim of this study was to determine the origin of Univen water,where its wastewater ends and how anthropogenic activities around the river damage/affect univen water demand from Nandoni dam.



  • To determine the affect of anthropogenic activities at Nandoni dam water supply.
  • To determine the WWTP where univen wastewater is treated
  • To determine the origin of Univen water(WMA and Main river)


AThe study was conducted in South Africa at Limpopo province. Figure 2 shows satellite map of Limpopo Province (Google Earth 2020). Nandoni dam was constructed in 1994. Nandoni dam was constructed by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) in the Luvuvhu River to provide raw water supplies for 1.3 million people in the Vhembe and parts of Mopani districts, Limpopo province, and controlled releases downstream to provide water supply for wildlife in Kruger National park.Luvhuvhu River is the catchment area of Nandoni Dam(DWAF 2003). The Nandoni dam provides water for surrounding communities of Vhembe district were water its used for domestic purposes such as bathing,cooking,drinking and washing and it has reduced poverty and unemployment rate as rural people catch fish to feed themselves or even to generate income(Gumbo et al 2016). There are a number of tributaries of the Luvuvhu River, namely Dzindi, Mudzwiri, Madikatla, and Mvudi(some are shown in figure 3 ),that contribute to inflows to the Luvuvhu River.They are sewage treatment plant,agricultural activities and others which are impacts that affect the quality and the quantity of water in Luvhuvhu River catchment which will end up in Nandoni dam(shown in figure 3). All other information about the geographical site coordinates in decimal degree, altitude in meters above sea level, water management area, quaternary catchment, Eco region level 2 and longitudinal zone of Nandon water reservoir in Table 1.
Table 1: Summary details for GPS, Altitude in meters above sea level, water management area, quaternary catchment, Eco region level 2 and longitudinal zone of Nandon water reservoir,Univen,WWTP and Luvhuvhu catchment area. (Google Earth 2020).


Checklist was checked to ensure that all required materials for field work are in a good condition to be used and protective clothes were worn before going to the field.Table 2 shown below is the checklist materials used for field work and Table 3 is for materials and their purpose.

During the fieldwork the smartphone with the global positioning system (GPS) application was used for navigation and giving the exact location and precise details (GPS coordinates) for both places of residences and origin of the water supply and sewerage systems endpoints and the other main impact on Nandon dam was also observed and identified. During the project a transport was used for transportation the Researcher to both water treatment plants (wastewater treatment plants end points, origin of water supply and all the tributary that flow into Luvuvhu River basin and identified the sewerage systems plants in each tributary in Luvuvhu River in the upstream of Nandon water reservoirs and all the data or information that was obtained was recorded in a paper using a pencil and typed using computer word application.

Smartphone Was used direction to the field (Navigation) also used to detect the actual GPS coordinates of the selected site.
Transport was used to visit the dam,wasterwater treatment plant,tributaries of Luvhuvhu catchment(especially Mvudi and Dzindi River respectively)
Internet Google Was used to get background information about water management areas in Limpopo or of Luvhuvhu river catchment
Paper. Pencil and Clipboard Were used to record collected and observed data from the field.
Checklist All available required materials were listed on the checklist.
Computer Word application used to record data from the field.


The results found By Gumbo et al (2016) in table 4 shows that too wasre materials from Thohoyandou which Thohoyandou WWTP receives per day its affect the water quality of Nandoni Dam. Mvudi upstream activities, which involved subsistence and vegetable cultivation and the washing of motor cars using the waters of the Mvudi River then they release goes back to the river then end up in Luvhuvhu catchment. Nandoni dam is affected by anthropogenic activities such as agricultural activities, human settlement, forestry, deforestation, plantation,Road, point and non-point source pollution (figure 3).Nandoni Dam is also affected by sewage systems which are Elim sewage plants, waterval sewage plants, Vuwani Oxidation ponds, Vuwani and Thohoyandou sewage plants but only Thohoyandou WWTP was identify on this study(Figure 3).


Univen receives water supply from Nandoni Dam as the dam Supply water in Vhembe district and their waste materials ends up at Thohoyandou WWTP where the effluent from the system is discharged into Mvudi River some agricultural practitioner buy sludge and dry it for their agricultural activities(Langenkamp and Part 2001) while some will the contaminate the river towards Luvhuvhu river via Dzindi River.Activities which takes place around Luvhuvhu river catchment such as agriculture and livestock production, processing and aquaculture, oil and gas, mining, food, manufacturing, and forestry generate waste which will end up affecting environment or their health after being treated((Ikehata and Liu, 2011).Poor agricultural activities, urban runoff,urbinsation and improper land use threated the suitability of the water quality in Luvhuvhu River for domestic use(Bapela 2001). The other main impact on the Nandon dam is the substance farming, commercial farming, brick- making using clay materials close to Mvudi River, the washing of motor cars using water in the upstream tributary have impact on the water quality or water resources of the peoples who depends on Nandon dam for water supply and reduced the water quality, which also affect the ecosystems, food web and health of the peoples who depends on Nandon dam for water supply.Rainfall had positive effect of washing road surface of R524 and discharging the stormwater wastes in Mvudi River(Gumbo 2016).


The ecological impact of the Thohoyandou WWTP discharge effluent to Mvudi River and the availability of nitrate from sewage contribute to proliferation of cynobacteria into the river and the main impact in the study was anthropogenic activities where Nandoni Dam water resource received contaminated raw water Luvhuvhu River catchment which will increase the cost and availability of equipment to treat Cyanobacteria that in the water so that communities can receive wealthy water. Luvhuvhu River catchment was affected by the presence of treatment plants around Thohoyandou WWTP is one of the rural and peri-urban areas WWTPs of South Africa producing effluent of poor quality which will affect the environment and human health (Edokpayi et al 2015).
Reaserch aims and question are achieved as this study stated that Univen receive water from Nandoni Dam which is the major dam for water supply in Vhembe district and Thohoyandou wastewater end up in Mvudi River via Thohoyandou WWTP. Major impact were anthropogenic activities around the rivers.


The purpose of this study was to see how human activities affect water supply and taught us how important the environment should be kept clean for the sake our health and safe water. Poor agricultural practices must come to end by giving some tips, workshops to agricultural farmers and even telling them how bad they are interrogating the river integrity and water supply which is a crisis in some part of the country due to such impacts like this.


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