Water Security between Turkey and Iraq

Introduction:


Water security one of the most significant secrets of administration of any country, Governments should hardly work to provide water security for them country and civilians, water security important because any nation or country people cannot live without clean water, also they cannot continue their industrial and architectural impacts without enough water.
Water is necessary for all life sectors or fields, for humans, animals and plants, in Middle East water sources were limited, especially in Iraq. Climate change and political issues in Middle East are main reasons to produce risks on the water security in the region.
Only two Rivers Euphrates and Tigris are flows in Turkey, which are main source of water in Iraq, many lives depend on those rivers. However, they are made many problems in the region especially for Iraq in one side and turkey and Syria in another side.
Risks on water security leads to many problems in countries like poverty, reduction of architectural and industrial product also may lead to speared huge number of illnesses because of decrease the amount of clean water.
At the time Turkey is going to build lakes on those two Rivers (Euphrates and Tigris), below the lakes water amount reduced obviously, it may be led to faster desertification in Iraq.
Iraqi politicians and government should step toward resolving water crisis and provide security to its water with Turkey.
Middle East is suffering from many crises and issues, water security nowadays one of them, which noticeably happens at the early of last decade. In this essay water security between Iraq and Turkey, it can be analyzing and how Iraq can provide security to its water?

Middle East and Water issues:


The locale of the Middle East where people settled around 10 centuries back is known as the Fertile Crescent. In the upper Fertile Crescent, two relentless streams, the Euphrates and Tigris, make their beginnings, in the current situation with Turkey, winding their way down through Syria and in the long run Iraq, where they have flooded the Mesopotamian Plain for more than 6,000 years. Right now, Cradle of Civilisation, site of the Garden of Eden, water has been the wellspring of life, most likely previous it, and the reason for struggle. CITATION Mac04 \l 1033 (MacQuarrie, 2004)Present day states coming to fruition in the twentieth century have improved political and regional limits, parceling Euphrates and Tigris stream water between Turkey, Syria and Iraq. Late advancement designs by Turkey take steps to deny water verifiably used by downstream riparians, Syria and Iraq. Water shortage in the Middle East, the ongoing rise of creating states and notable political contentions undermine riparians with struggle. Thus, the three states have tried to securitize their privileges over Euphrates and Tigris water. CITATION Mac04 \l 1033 (MacQuarrie, 2004)Creating water innovation and the executives frameworks isn't adequate to adapt to the water deficiency, where political choices may be considered as a basic component right now. The Euphrates and Tigris bowl has been experiencing for quite a long-time political precariousness and botch. The pressure over the water designation that was on the arranging table since the 1960s finished with no generous understanding between the riparian nations (Iraq, Turkey and Syria). CITATION Sam19 \l 1033 (Muqdadi, 2019)The goal is to assess the effect of the political measurement by making an applied model for the hydropolitical cycle, tending to the significance of the exchange ideas to agree; the examination additionally intends to build up a system that may bolster the change from struggle to joint effort. CITATION Sam19 \l 1033 (Muqdadi, 2019) The methodologies of circumstance guide and frameworks thinking have been actualized to construct the model. The apparatuses of exchange aptitudes have been embraced to help the water strife. The outcomes depict the difficulties inside various levels and showing the hydropolitical cycle and adding a continue toolbox to the hypothesis of water struggle and change the board. Besides, the paper delivers the structure and work process of setting up the Global Water Security Council. CITATION Sam19 \l 1033 (Muqdadi, 2019)

Why Turkey build lakes on Euphrates and Tigris?


Turkey is not a country which has excess water capacity. Although Turkey has at present more water resources than some of its neighbours, it is a country which will find itself in a position of shortage in the near future. Turkey's average annual runoff is about 186bn cubic meters (m3). The amount available for consumption from this capacity is mere 110bn m3, including 12bn m3 of ground water. Taking into consideration Turkey's population of 60 million, the quantity of water per capita will be 1833m . Countries regarded as rich in water resources, have 8000-10,000m3 of water per capita per year. CITATION Tur \l 1033 (Turkish ministry of Foreign affairs, n.d.)In other words, the available water per capita in Turkey is about one-fifth of the water-rich countries. The impression that Turkey has excess water derives from the fact that it is not at present in a position to fully utilise its water resources. Today Turkey utilises only 25.9bn m3 of itsavailable capacity of 110bn m .The remaining portion of 84.1bn m is not surplus to
Turkey's requirements, but an amount which cannot yet be allocated to its needs. CITATION Tur \l 1033 (Turkish ministry of Foreign affairs, n.d.)The Turkish Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs and the Iraqi Ministry of Water Resources have arranged an update of comprehension between them comprising of 12 articles. The memorandum was mutually drawn up by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Turkish Embassy in Baghdad, alongside their Iraqi partners. Work on the reminder seems to go back to the finish of 2014 and proceeded in the years following. CITATION Ism19 \l 1033 (Dawood, 2019)Some official letters are dated as late as August 2017; maybe the entirety of this happened through formal and casual conversations. Whatever the case, it appears that the principal indication of the reminder and the underlying letters originated from the two services in mid 2019, and that the update is currently at the endorsement organize. The Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs has detailed that Turkish President Erdogan has designated an extraordinary agent to haggle with Iraq on the issue of water, and that the emissary is to visit Iraq soon. CITATION Ism19 \l 1033 (Dawood, 2019)In any case, to date there has been no open conversation about the substance of this notice. Obviously, the Iraqi moderator is quick to keep it mystery in spite of the requirement for an open discussion to guarantee that this basic update safeguards Iraq's privileges and fulfills universal guidelines. CITATION Ism19 \l 1033 (Dawood, 2019)

Iraq water security risks:


Iraq, effectively desolated by many years of ethnic and partisan fighting, has unobtrusively endured a water lack over the previous decade. Counting the Kurdistan locale, Iraq depends on the Euphrates and Tigris waterways for 98 percent for its drinking, water system and sanitation supplies. Most of the nation additionally lives along the two noteworthy streams, which begin in Turkey. Turkey has assembled 22 dams and 19 hydropower plants through its Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP) in the district where most of its Kurdish populace live. Lacking hydrocarbon assets inside Turkey, the administration under Recep Tayyip Erdogan has acknowledged water is a definitive weapon, not oil. CITATION Dil \l 1033 (Abdulkader, n.d.) This all started as a national undertaking by the originator of present day Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, planning to better "coordinate eastern Anatolia into the remainder of Turkey and produce financial advancement through the development of water system ventures."
Notwithstanding, what we are seeing is a staggering impact on Iraq's populace. Ankara endeavored to build the number tasks in the southeast to give a superior personal satisfaction for the devastated individuals there who are experiencing the Turkish war against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Be that as it may, "the administration's securitization of the Kurdish issue has made justification for question, provoking some to ponder whether Turkey is looking to its own fabulous political goals – verifying power supplies, boosting rural fares, acclimatizing the Kurdish populace, and so on – instead of really caring for its constituents' needs, as it claims," Ilektra Tsakalidou, an examiner on European vitality security at the European Union Institute for Security Studies, wrote in 2013. CITATION Dil \l 1033 (Abdulkader, n.d.)Turkey and Iraq had a cozy relationship during the 1980s, as the two nations were managing Kurdish separatists and guerrilla developments. Iraq was additionally engrossed with its war with Iran, and required Turkey as an outlet for its oil sends out. The 1990/91 Bay War saw a time of rising pressures, as Turkey fairly hesitantly joined the US drove alliance against Iraqi president Saddam Husayn, yet at the equivalent time would not utilize GAP to slice off water supplies to Iraq. During the rest of the Saddam years, Iraq persistently grumbled that Turkey was damaging the 1987 water understanding and not giving enough water to Iraq. The 2003 US drove intrusion further stressed relations among Turkey and Iraq, with the formation of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). CITATION Mar14 \l 1033 (Dohrmann, 2014)Simultaneously, exchange, which had been cut off since the Gulf War, consistently developed among Turkey and Iraq. While Iraqi protests proceeded over the quality and amount of the water streaming downstream, highlighting desertification in Iraq as confirmation that Turkey was not giving enough water, the relationship generally speaking between the two nations standardized. Strains have been ascending since the December 2013 completion of oil pipelines between the KRG and Turkey and the fare of oil free of the Iraqi focal government through pipelines between the KRG and Turkey, however the dispersal of oil installments stays on hold." Recent Kurdish dangers to hold an allude endue on freedom which Baghdad accepts are in any event implicitly bolstered by the Turkish government have likewise fundamentally stressed the relationship. CITATION Mar14 \l 1033 (Dohrmann, 2014)

Negotiation between Turkey and Iraq about Water:


Turkey and Iraq have consented to set up a water asset focus in Baghdad to study and address water issues in the area. Tending to a question and answer session in Iraqi capital Baghdad, Turkish Presidency's Special Representative to Iraq Veysel Eroglu reported that the two nations have drafted an activity intend to address water issues. "We have arranged an incredible working and activity plan, in regards to the water issue," Eroglu stated, subsequent to holding converses with Iraqi Water Resources Minister Jamal Adili. CITATION Alh19 \l 1033 (Alhas, 2019)He included that Turkey supported advancement of its neighbor Iraq. "We need companionship among Iraq and Turkey, to become significantly more grounded. We will build up an inside in Baghdad to consider and find water sources," he said. Keeping up that he held productive chats with Iraqi authorities on the water issues, Eroglu who is additionally Turkey's water undertakings serve, said the two nations will extend their territory of participation, past water issues. "We will hold joint takes a shot at an assortment of subjects. CITATION Alh19 \l 1033 (Alhas, 2019)Iraq has incredible potential," he included. The priest said the two nations would before long examine development of a rail organize, beginning from northern Iraq to southern Basra territory, and a land course also, in a similar locale. "Along these lines, we will interface Turkey to Gulf nations through Iraq," he said. As far as access and availability, Turkish pastor stated, Iraq has multiple times more potential than that of Singapore. CITATION Alh19 \l 1033 (Alhas, 2019) Iraqi Water Resources Minister Jamal Adili said the gathering on water issue worked out in a good way. He focused on that Turkey and Iraq delighted in the best respective ties as of now in the two nations' history. Adili said Iraq was satisfied with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's "valuable" frame of mind towards nation's water issues. He said the two nations supported an answer and water talks exhibited an extraordinary chance to profit the two Turks and Iraqis. CITATION Alh19 \l 1033 (Alhas, 2019)

Nations over the Middle East are confronting a dreary eventual fate of declining precipitation, lessening surface-and groundwater supplies, and expanding desertification. Since 1998, the district has confronted the most exceedingly awful dry spell conditions in 900 years; it is home to 10 of the 17 nations that are as of now confronting 'very high' water pressure. Taking off temperatures over the district normal summer temperatures are anticipated to ascend by 4°C by 2050 regardless of whether worldwide ascents are constrained to 2°C are expanding dissipation of surface water, compelling an over-dependence on springs and groundwater supplies that are as of now in danger of over-abuse. CITATION Ism19 \l 1033 (Dawood, 2019)Somewhere in the range of 2003 and 2010, portions of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran along the Tigris and Euphrates stream bowls lost 144 cubic kilometers of complete put away freshwater; 60% of that misfortune was ascribed to the siphoning of groundwater from underground supplies. Given this background, it's disturbing that the effect of the Middle East's climatic conditions on water supplies is being exacerbated by dam extends that will decline the effectively intense water pressure and land corruption that is endangering farming over the area. CITATION Con19 \l 1033 (Dilleen, 2019)Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia Project is one of the biggest and most disputable dam-building programs universally. Twenty-two dams are scheduled to be built along the Tigris and Euphrates waterways close to Turkey's fringes with Syria and Iraq. The task has pulled in the rage of nations over the Middle East since its beginning in light of the effect it will have on basic water supplies in Turkey's southern neighbors. Lately Ankara has initiated filling the Ilisu Dam, the biggest dam in the proposed system, further concentrating consideration on its activities and exciting effectively tense relations with its neighbors. CITATION Con19 \l 1033 (Dilleen, 2019)Especially for Mosul, which endured the pulverization of almost 90 percent of its old neighborhoods a year ago due to the war on Daesh, the dryness of the Tigris has come to finish the errand of slaughtering the town, while its kin live in evacuee camps in its environment. CITATION Dia18 \l 1033 (Moukalled, 2018)

Brief explanation about Iraqi Water sources:


Around 70% of Iraq’s water comes from sources outside of its territory, predominantly originating in Turkey and Iran. Since 1975, the flow of water from the Euphrates and Tigris rivers from Turkey into Iraq has declined by 80%. Over 80% of Iraq’s current water supply is used for agriculture, which supports around 13 million of its 38 million people. CITATION Joa19 \l 1033 (Burden, 2019)Iraq is also experiencing high youth unemployment rates and an ongoing protest movement motivated by socio-political grievances. Rampant state corruption, insufficient provision of basic social goods such as education, healthcare, electricity, and Iranian influence over the government are all contributing factors. This all suggests the country may be subject to more of the instability that has characterised the post-2003 era in the near future. CITATION Joa19 \l 1033 (Burden, 2019)Turkey’s Southeastern Anatolia Project (known as GAP in Turkish), which began in the 1970s is partially to blame for Iraq’s water shortage. Comprising of 22 dams and 19 power plants, this scheme is ostensibly for socio-economic development in a region of Turkey that has traditionally been poorer, less educated and experienced more gender inequality than the rest of the country. However, the ability to exert control over the supply of water into Iraq and Syria means the project has evolved into a tool of realpolitik. CITATION Joa19 \l 1033 (Burden, 2019)

Conclusion:


As conclusion of this topic the answer of question water security between Turkey and Iraq and how Iraq can provide security to its water is Iraq and Turkey water sources are not enough to fill all necessities of water, there are many steps toward resolving this problem, Iraq should build number of lakes to save water inside Iraq and should make compromise with turkey to divide water between them equally, the compromise should be make under U.N observation.
Also, Iraq can use those sources of water which flow in Iran to build on them lakes and save water to architectural and industrial purposes.

References:

 

  • Abdulkader, D., n.d. Turkey's thirst for power threatens water war with Iraq. https://thedefensepost.com/2018/06/07/turkey-water-war-iraq-kurdistan-opinion/
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  • Dawood, I., 2019. Does the Memorandum of understanding in Water Management Between Turkey and Iraq Guarantee Iraq its Water rights?
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  • Moukalled, D., 2018. Iraq Must act to ward off water security crisis. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1317461
  • Muqdadi, S. W. A.-., 2019. Developing Strategy for Water Conflict Management and Transformation at Euphrates - Tigris Basin. https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/11/10/2037/htm
  • Turkish ministry of Foreign affairs, n.d. Water crisis between Turkey, Syria and Iraq. http://sam.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/WATER-ISSUES-BETWEEN-TURKEY-SYRIA-AND-IRAQ.pdf