What Is Global Warming: Causes and Effects

Global warming is that the average temperature of the Earth’s aerosphere keeps increasing. The increasing in the amount of energy in the form of heat hitting the earth that is emitted from the sun that is being trapped in the atmosphere and not transfer out into space. 

The Earth’s atmosphere acts like a greenhouse and captures the Sun’s heat, making sure that the earth has temperatures that allows the emergence of life forms for example humans, plants and animals. Without the atmosphere the earth would be very cold. Global warming, however, is the equivalence of a greenhouse but with highly efficiency reflective glass installed in the wrong way. The best evidence of this may come from a terrible cooling event that took place about 1,500 years ago. And massive volcano eruption that happened twice, one year after another which produced so much black dust into the upper atmosphere and cause little sunlight to penetrate in to the Earth. When the temperatures drop. Crops start to fail, people died of starvation and animals start to die too. As the dust slowly fell onto the Earth, the Sun was able to warm up the world again and life returned to normal. But now, we have the opposite problem. Nowadays, the problem is not that too little of the Sun’s warmth is reaching the earth, but the opposite that too much is being trapped in our atmosphere. So the amount of heat is being kept inside the Earth’s atmosphere increases that the temperature of the earth is rising up faster than that at any previous time in history. NASA is now providing an excellent course global warming. And there is a more simpler definition for global warming. Over the past 60 years, the average global temperature increased at a fast rate throughout history. Specialist observe this trend that is accelerating. According to NASA’s 134-year record that one of the 16 hottest years have occurred since the year 2001.Climate change deniers argued that there has been a slowdown in the rising of global temperatures, but recent studies show that, the theory was disapproved and environmentalist said that if we do not control the emissions of greenhouse gases, the average temperature in the United States could increase up to 20 degrees over the next few centuries.

History of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

In the early 1820 Joseph Fourier a French Mathematician and Physician said that the energy reaching the Earth in the form of sunlight must be equal to the energy returning to space because it emits radiation. He proposed that the thin air covering the Earth- Aerosphere acts like a glass and heat is trapped inside it like a greenhouse. In 1896 Svante Arrhenius a Swedish Scientist proposed that fossil fuel combustion may eventually lead to global warming. He then established a relation between the temperature and the concentration of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. He found out that the average temperature on the surface of the Earth was 15oC he suggested that the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide will cause the temperature to rise by 5oC. He and Thomas Chamberlin calculated that human activities will add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and eventually make the Earth warmer. In the 1940s the development of infrared spectroscopy proved that the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide results in the increase in infrared radiation and water vapour will absorb different types of radiation than carbon dioxide. In 1955 Gilbert Plass concluded that the increasing amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would intercept the infrared radiation by lost to space and hence warming up the Earth. In 1960 Charles Keeling used modern technologies to produce concentration curves for the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere at Antarctica and Mauna Loa. The curves show that the trend of global temperature is downward from 1940 to 1970. In 1980 the average temperature of the globe started to rise and in the late 1980 the curve began to increase steeply and started the global warming trend. In 1988 the temperature was warmer than in the last few years. In 1990 scientists started to do research on the greenhouse effect. In 1998 Kyoto, Japan the Kyoto Protocal was negotiated. This Protocal requires participating countries to reduce their emission on greenhouse gasses by at least 5% and the protocal is practiced from 2008 to 2012. The Kyoto Protocal was signed in 2001 by 186 countries. From 1988 onwards the perspective of people on greenhouse effect started to change resulting in the influences from the media. The term greenhouse effect was used fewer and therefore fewer people started to refer to the theory as it is global warming or just climate change.

Causes of Global Warming

There are a lot of activities that us humans do that causes global warming but we are just no concern about it. The first activity that us humans do that cause global warming is travel and transportation. Majority of our vehicles on the road, air and water are powered by fossil fuels for example gasoline and petroleum. As the fuel is burnt while powering the engines it releases Carbon Dioxide gas and other pollutants like Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen oxides and Sulphur Dioxide. In 2016 transportation was a major contributor to the United States in greenhouse gas emission. When the greenhouse gases are trapped within the aerosphere causes the temperature to rise (Data refer to Appendix Diagram 1). The second activity is industrialization. The transformation of agricultural based economy to industrial economy is also one of the more earlier cause of global warming. Researchers has shown that Industrial Revolution kick started global warming all around the world (Data refer to Appendix Diagram 2). The third activity is deforestation. Every year million acres of trees are logged and harvested into paper, furniture and also forest cleared for agricultural activities. Forests store an enormous amount of carbon dioxides as trees remove carbon dioxides and transform them into oxygen gas. Hence preventing the carbon dioxide from being trapped in the aerosphere (Data refer to Appendix Diagram 3). The forth activity that humans do is excessive use of electricity. In the United States most houses use fossil fuel and natural gas to generate electricity. Now in the 21st century it is hard to live without electricity so electricity is largely used that means more natural gas and fossil fuel will be consumed and more carbon dioxide will be released to the aerosphere. Today people are trying to reduce the use of electricity by turning it off when not used but almost 50% of the devices still draw electricity even though it is turned off. Last but not least is the use of Aerosol which is a cloud of solid or liquid particles. For example spray paints, hairsprays and dispensers. It has been forbidden in many countries as it is filled with gases like Carbon Dioxide and Methane also Chlorofluorocarbons which can corrode the ozone layer (Data refer to Appendix Diagram 4). Lastly, is the ability to find replacement product are hard. Scientists are researching for a replacement for fossil fuel and other non-renewable sources. Recently Scientist and Technologists has found a new source to power car engines that is by using solar energy to replace petroleum, but it is still in construction and undergoing tests. In conclusion the main causes of global warming is too much Carbon Dioxide trapped in the aerosphere.

Effect of Global Warming

Global Warming can cause a lot of trouble nowadays that effects our everyday life. First and foremost, global warming causes extreme increase in temperature. The mean temperature on the surface of the Earth is about 15oC and is increasing by about 0.8oC every year according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The second effect is the extreme weathers occurring. Global warming causes some of the hottest summers and coldest winters. For example the one of the hottest summer in Taiwan in 2013 and coldest winters in 2018. Other extreme weathers are typhoons. A massive typhoon occurred in 2018 at Mangkhut. Scientist estimated that heat waves, drought, blizzards and rainstorms will occur more frequently due to global warming. The third effect is the increase in ocean level and acidification of it. As the temperature increases the ice starts to melt and therefore rises the sea level. Since 1870 the sea level has been rise to about 8 inches and the rate is expected to accelerate in the following years. If this scenario keeps happening many coastal areas like Maldives and some small islands around India will soon vanish. Not only that the increase in sea level will also cause many countries which are closed to the oceans experience Tsunamis. Recent research shows that after 100 years the mean sea level will be 2.3 feet higher in New York, 2.9 feet higher in Hamptons Road and 3.5 feet higher in Galveston Texas. Well not only the sea level is changing but also its acidity.