Ecology

A Concept of Evolutionary Biology

The article written by Dr. Ulrich Kutschera discusses the history of the \"species concept\" as originally proposed and written by Charles Darwin in his most influential book, On the Origin of Species and how his concepts evolved into the branch of science known today as \"evolutionary biology\" (Kutschera 2009, p. 1248). It briefly explained the contents of Darwin\'s original work in five concise points that mostly refer to having gradual modifications within species…


Coliform Form of Bacteria

State Extension Service provides relevant information related to Coliform (“Coliform Bacteria,” PennState Extension, 2016). Coliform bacteria include several types of bacteria that occur throughout the environment. These bacteria are usually found in soil and surface water. Large numbers of certain kinds of coliform bacteria can also be found in waste from both animals and humans (“Coliform Bacteria,” PennState Extension, 2016). Most types of coliform bacteria will not c…


What Is Forest?

A forest is defined by Merriam Webster as “a dense growth of trees and underbrush covering a large tract”. Animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. The trees in the forest take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen during photosynthesis. This is an example of one of the many symbiotic relationships in the forest ecosystem. The trees are able to grow because of good sources of water throughout the year. This is one of the things that separate a forest from another ec…


Interpretation of Ecological Consciousness in The Old Man and the Sea

In recent years, with the increasing environmental crisis, the ecological writing and ecological criticism of the relationship between man and nature has received more and more attention. In the work "The Old Man and the Sea", Hemingway vividly showed his readers the concern for human living environment and the respect for nature's ecological and cultural awareness. This chapter attempts to analyze the author's thinking on the relationship between human and nature in the pe…


The Importance of Ecological Change and Their Causes

Adrian Dawkins G. Pickren SUST-101 2 March 2020 Changes in our Land In William Cronon’s Changes in the Land the reader is given insight into the ecology of New England as well as insight into Indian and European colonists society, and their interactions with each other. Cronon believes that the actual ecological changes themselves are not as important as to why these changes occurred in the first place. He feels that people are in an endless cycle creating and re-creating their livelih…


Science as the Key to Solving Problems

A well planned science education programme can be a fruitful effort in developing the desired attitudes and shaping the scientific out look. Recognizing the importance of science education Nehru observed that” It is science alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, of insanitation and literacy, of superstitions, customs, and tradition of vasr resources running off waste, of a rich country inhabited by starvingbpeople”. The society of the twenty first century will, …


The Metamorphosis of Plants

Splicing plant varieties enables more than one kind of fruit or flower to coexist on the same body, or sometimes, varieties merge in such a way that the rootstock takes on the characteristics of the graft (Melnyk, 2015: 183). In both scenarios, grafting yields unlikely amalgamations and hybrid mixes. Unearthing a conceptual understanding of grafting seems to likewise propose novel encounters between different modes of thinking, from philosophy and literature, to the natural sciences. In actual …


The Different Types of Vegetation and Its Significance to the Environment

Identification of the Types of Natural Vegetation Vegetation is a key component of an ecosystem; thus, it is involved in the control of various biogeochemical cycles such as water, nitrogen, and carbon. Vegetation playing an important role to the environment is classified as natural and planted vegetation. Vegetation types are determined by the type of soil, land formation, and the climate of the area in which the vegetation grows. For instance, more rainfall supports the growth of taller pl…


An Examination of Biodiversity and Its Benefits to Life

In the world that we live in there so many variations that appear in almost every form of life. Still, variation goes beyond living things to also include non-living things hence the general term "diversity." As the interaction in life goes on due to the differences that exist among the things in the world, certain benefits are realized which ultimately lead to promotion of quality life among the living things. In this paper, we shall examine how Biodiversity brings about benefits to …


Loss of Biodiversity and Extinction of Plants, Animals, and Other Living Things

Loss of Biodiversity and Extinction Biodiversity is defined as “the diversity, or variety, of plants and animals and other living things in a particular area or region" (Biodiversity.ca.gov). As PBS notes, "By some estimates, as much as 30 percent of the world's animals and plants could be on a path to extinction within 100 years" (Pbs.org). The extinction rate is significantly high, much higher than we would have predicted just 50 years ago. This loss of biodiversit…


The Effects of Ocean Acidification on Oysters

Ocean acidification has been a prominent topic over the last decade along with the discussion of global warming. As more carbon dioxide is emitted, the ocean absorbs and stores more carbon dioxide in the form of carbonic acid, which is a weak acid. As a result, the carbonate ions that shell organisms need to build their shells are removed and incorporated into carbonic acid, therefore shell organisms do not have the necessary ions to build their outer shells leading to their demise. While the E…


The Importance of the Amazon River in the Amazon Forest

The Amazon Rainforest, which takes up a region called Amazonia, contains a large amount of biodiversity and a variety of human cultures. As all organisms on Earth need water to survive, the large amount of life in the Amazon relies on the water in the region. This water includes the Amazon River, which gives the rainforest its name, along with many smaller rivers, the floodplains all these rivers create, and other water sources. Water is a very important force in Amazonia that plays multiple ro…


Ecological Succession: A Result of Changes in the Ecosystems

Ecosystems undergo changes in their structure and function as time passes. Some of these changes are minor and only affect a small area, others are the cause of major changes in the species present and affect the ecosystem as a whole. Major changes can be caused by changes in climate, external factors such as fire, trampling or pollution and development due to the system itself. Succession is a result of these changes and is defined as a series of progressive changes in an area with one c…


The Effects of Trophic Cascades on the Biotic Interactions of Ecological Webs

All organisms have relationships to other organisms, whether it's a bird consuming a grasshopper or fungi receiving nutrients from decaying organic matter. Scientists use ecological webs to keep track of these relationships and depict cascading, direct and indirect biotic interactions between organisms in ecosystems. Cascading interactions are when feeding relationships affect abundance of populations which affects the next two trophic levels. Populations of producers, consumers, and decomp…


A Research Proposal on the Feasibility of Vertical Farming in Local Urban Settings

My research proposal is to conduct research on the feasibility of vertical farming in local urban settings. My research will go over the cost of production and the cost running and maintaining of a vertical farm in the north Texas area.  Vertical farming is the concept of building fields and orchards one on top of the other in a skyscraper like building. The idea is based on indoor food growing technologies found in greenhouses and applying them to multilevel structures. Regulating eff…


An Analysis of the Topic of the Questions and the Dominant Ideology on Ecological Critique

To discuss this question effectively I will first describe the dominant ideology before moving on to discuss the ecological critique of economic development and whether it provides an viable alternative viewpoint or is simply a fashionable but irrelevant set of theories. One of the first problems encountered in a discussion of this nature is one of terminology, because it can be seen that economic development/progress and growth do not always have agreed meanings nor are they necessarily synoym…


Food Webs in the Great Barrier Reef: Explanations and Challenges

Food Webs and Biomass Pyramids  Food chains and food webs are part of an ecosystem and can be described as the community of Autotrophs and Heterotrophs that feed, reproduce, respire, interact and die in the same environment (Rachna, 2017). As well as the decomposer, which is a continuous procedure of cycling nutrition for the consumer to use again. The diagrams illustrated above, display all the interconnecting pathways throughout the food web and biomass pyramid also all possible feedi…


The Impact of Climate on the Nature of Cold Environment Ecosystems

Climate is the average weather conditions of a place usually measured over a year; cold environments tend to have a climate of low temperatures, frequent precipitation (in the form of snow) and strong winds, an example of a cold environment is Alaska in Northern America. Cold environments have high latitudes and altitudes; Alaska is 70 degrees North of the equator. The annual temperature of Alaska is -12.7 degrees and winds can reach up to 97km per hour, due to this typical climate of cold e…


An Analysis of the Factors Contributing to the Decrease in Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the variation in animals and plants in an ecosystem. Earth is full of biodiversity but in the last 200 years, it has been diminishing more and more. This is due mostly to human activities. Rapid industrialization has benefited humankind in countless ways but it has also wreaked havoc on the environment. Humans have been destroying the environment because of the need for more and more space but this must stop. Both an economic and ecological problem, the long-term cost of the los…


A Critique of Loving the Chambered Nautilus to Death, an Article by William Board

One of the main issues when addressing environmental ethics is who/what gets moral considerability. In the article "Loving the Chambered Nautilus to Death" by William Broad, Board discusses the potential endangerment of nautilus. Nautilus shells are used for jewelry and ornaments with prices that reach prices past five hundred dollars. The species are caught under unregulated fishing guidelines, which is detrimental to the species due to their slow sexual maturity. Although the specie…


Acid Rain: Scourge from the Skies

North Americans have been smelting ore and burning fossil fuels for generations. In the past, the gases went up ordinary chimneys or small smoke stacks, to descend upon near by areas and pollute them, states author, Robert Collins. Almost everyone knows what acid rain is and has a vague idea of the consequences that exist as a cause of it. Most people however do not realize the severity of acid rain. The essay Acid Rain: Scourge from the Skies by Robert Collins was very effective in showing the…


An Analysis of the Hetch Hetchy Valley Dam Controversy

Hetch Hetchy Valley Dam Controversy “The controversy over damming Hetch Hetchy Valley, a portion of Yosemite NationalPark, to provide water to San Francisco pitted leaders of the new conservation movement -- andcompeting definitions of conservation -- against each other” (The Hetch Hetchy Dam Controversy: An Introduction). Back in the 1920s, from the preservation and conservation aspect, John Muir, the founder of the Sierra Club and the man who Theodore Rooseveltdedicated Muir Woods…


An Analysis of the Exhaustion of Landfill Capacities in the United States

Many people dispose of their trash not knowing or caring where it ends up. Usually trash will end up in a landfill, unless it is recycled. A landfill is an area of land containing trash put beneath the surface either covered by ashes or dirt. It is sometimes lined by either rubber or plastic. are a necessity, but they have drawbacks that have left many people concerned. In the next few paragraphs these concerns will be explained. can be located in many places, but are almost never located ne…


An Analysis of the Environmental Issue of the Destruction of the Rainforests

The destruction of the rainforests is one of the most crucial environmental issues of our time. It is also one of the most misunderstood and neglected. There has been so much propaganda and publicity attached to this crisis that Save the Rainforests is becoming almost as clich as Save the Whales. Why dont we take this problem more seriously? Is it because we, as Americans, simply dont understand the devastating, long-terms consequences that continued deforestation of the rainforests would have?…


An Argument in Favor of Imposing Tax on Plastic Bags

As more research comes in, resource sustainability and the effects of our daily carbon footprint have come more and more to the forefront of Americans' consciousness. Given the terrible environmental consequences of both single-use plastic and paper bags, the most socially responsible action for communities to adopt would be to tax all single use bags, as the tax would serve as a deterrent to consumers, thus saving the environment, the tax revenue can be funneled back into much needed resea…


An Argument in Favor of Ecology in regards to Technology

QUESTION 1: Technology owes Ecology an Apology. Indeed, in my opinion, technology does owe ecology an apology. This is because ecological imbalances were as a result of the Industrial revolution, which could be said to be the beginning of the non-ending technological advancement cycle. During Industrial revolution, we began altering or climate and environment through changing agricultural and industrial practices.  Before the industrial revolution, human activity released very few gases…


The Global Issues of the Ecological Wellbeing of Earth

Seven Revolutions Paper The global community is currently at a crossroads. The world powers of the 20th century are dealing with issues such as an aging population, while non-Western countries are on the rise. The population has steadily continued to grow. Regardless of where countries are in their respective timelines, there is one shared issue that Earth must cooperate to begin to tackle: the ecological wellbeing of our planet, which is currently in a poor state. In order to responsibly in…


An Analysis of Tropical Rain Forests and the Many Issues of Ecology

Tropical Rain Forests: Physical Factors, Politics and Possible Soltutions Every year 11 million hectares of tropical rain forest are lost through commercial and subsidence pressures ( Winterbottom and Hazelwood, 1987). The pressures that cause forest clearance varies geographically. In Amazonia the primary force is to clear cut the forest for agriculture (Goodland, 1982). The most common usage of this cleared land is for the production of coffee, cocoa, rice and for cattle ranching (Goodland…


Saving and Protecting the Fauna through Conservation Projects from Overexploitation Which Leads to Extinction

Who Cares? It's Just an Animal: The Importance of Saving Our Fauna Pizza is the saddest polar bear in the world. Pizza is confined in a tiny aquarium located at Grandview Mall in Guangzhou, China. His only interaction is with the flashing lights and obsessive eyes of tourists. His walls are painted with a dark shade of blue in an attempt to make his small cage look like his real home, the Arctic. Pizza does not know what sunlight or fresh air feels like. Unfortunately, being in such solitu…


Topic of the Various Theories in Management and the Population Ecology

Various theories in management take the view that organisations are in a constant struggle with the environment. This essay will examine three theories in seeking to determine whether this widely held view is demonstrated in these theories. It will examine population ecology theory, systems theory, and contingency theory, firstly defining what each is and then second relating the various theories to the environment. Population ecology takes the view that the environment is dominant, and orga…


Ecological Management Proposal for Maine

Management Proposal for Maine Freshwater Ecosystems are defined as having less than 1% salt concentration. Lakes, ponds, streams and wetlands make up almost one-tenth of Maine's surface area. There are more than 6,000 lakes and ponds and over 31, 000 miles of rivers and streams, making it of utmost importance to ecologists interested in preserving the fragile balance. Two specific freshwater ecosystems, Sebago Lake and Moosehead Lake will be discussed throughout the paper. Sebago Lake, l…


Topic of the Issues of Pollution in the America

Polluting America Do you ever wonder what you are inhaling into your lungs? Are you concerned? When you drive past large chemical plants, do you see the large amounts of smoke continuously being released into the air? Did you realize that the pollution released is probably more than legally released? Many people do not consider the danger we are in. We are breathing chemicals into our lungs that harm our bodies and organs. Many industrial plants release excess amounts of these pollutants, an…


An Analysis of The Threat to Soil Biodiversity and Quality

It is well known that soil is an extremely important aspect in any ecosystem. It provides the nutrients for any land based fauna to develop and thus is at the start and end of the food chain. However, like any aspect of the environment, there is the threat of pollution and degradation with human influence. According the he article, over 80% of all land is influenced by human interaction. Majority of the areas influenced are being degraded and being used at an alarming rate in which sustainab…


The Roadless Area Final Rule: Conservation or Preservation?

In 1978, the United States Forest Service (USFS) began the management of roadless areas, i.e., all areas greater than 5,000 acres and without constructed roads, in a study called Roadless Area Review and Evaluation II (RARE 11). The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of these roadless areas for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System. On October 13, 1999, twenty-one years later, President Clinton directed the Forest Service to provide long-term protection to…


An Analysis of the Relation between Acid Rains and the Decline in the Red Spruce Population in Vermont and Northeastern Forests

Acid Rain. It is a term that has been imbedded in us for many decades and yet still it is an issue today. It is a term that was coined in 1872 by Dr. Robert Angus Smith, an English chemist. (Mello 21). He noticed that the air in the cities contained many different contaminates including sulfuric acid, which he believed to be the cause of corroding metals and certain types of damage to plants. His colleagues ignored his studies and findings and it wasnt until 100 years later that scientists star…


An Analysis of the Reform in the Spirit of Conservation

Reform in the Spirit of Conservation The creation of the Civilian Conservation Corps and Civil Works Administration revolutionized the U.S. federal government by redefining its roles in the lives of its citizens. Prior to the Great Depression and Franklin D. Roosevelts resulting New Deal, the federal government had taken no responsibility in the employment or welfare of U.S. citizens. People were employed by privately owned businesses and the poor, if they received any help at all, were aide…


An Analysis of the Problem of the Destruction of the Rainforests

The destruction of the rainforests is happening at a great rate and must be stopped now. A delegate from U.S. Congress, Al Gore , says 1/ "The devastation of the rainforest is just unbelievable. It's one of the great tragedies of all history." Last year the smoke in Porto Velho, the capital of the Brazilian state of Rondonia, was so thick the airport had to be shut down. 2/ "An estimated 12,350 square miles of Brazilian rain forest an area larger than Belgium, was reduced to …


A Discussion on Groundwater Contamination

Grpundwater Contamination Groundwater is the largest source of freshwater. Groundwater is water contained in the pore spaces between oil and rocks below the Earths surface. The supply of Groundwater is larger than all the streams and lakes of the world combined. Groundwater pollution is a serious problem because many people depend on groundwater for their drinking water. Car pollution of soil and groundwater comes from various sources, such as runoff of used motor oil, improperly disposed ca…


A Personal View of Life's Meaning as an Ecological Being on the Planet Earth

The question that is before us is rather complex: What is my lifes meaning as an ecological being on the Planet Earth? In this essay, I will attempt to explore three aspects of my life, as they pertain to the environment and the ecological footprint that I have left, and while leave in the future. This will be achieved through exploring three important aspects of my life, as they relate to the environment: Consumption, Career, and Speaking Up. The first aspect I will explore of my life, as i…


An Analysis of Squirrel Behavior in Ecology

Abstract As our population expands and cities grow and spread out into the country, the line between wilderness and civilization becomes thinner and thinner. The relationship between animals and humans becomes more and more strained, and the understanding of animal behavior in the presence of man becomes increasingly important. A great example of a species that has successfully adapted to life with humans is the gray squirrel. My study tried to prove that squirrels learn to live with humans …


An Analysis of Psychological Ecology in The Power of Place

The Power of Place by Winifred Gallagher When people think of their environment people think of their immediate surroundings; however, one's environment goes beyond and further into the psychological connection to one's personal environment. To further explain, Gallagher discusses three different aspects of The Power of Place: Outside In, Inside Out, and Synchrony. The book opens doors previously unnoticed about psychological ecology. From reading the book one learns that settings in…


An Analysis of Psychological Ecology in The Power of Plac

The Power of Place by Winifred Gallagher When people think of their environment people think of their immediate surroundings; however, one's environment goes beyond and further into the psychological connection to one's personal environment. To further explain, Gallagher discusses three different aspects of The Power of Place: Outside In, Inside Out, and Synchrony. The book opens doors previously unnoticed about psychological ecology. From reading the book one learns that settings in…


Question of Dakota Access Pipeline

The Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) has become the prime example of the classic big business vs environment conflict. The legalities of the matter are complicated as this particular pipeline deals with a special case, Native American grounds. The easier to understand phenomenon of this matter is the treatment of the protestors. The police brutality and excessive force inflicted on the peaceful protestors by the police is something the black community knows all too well. An injustice anywhere i…


Renewable Fuel Biofuels and the Issues of Pollution on our Ecosystem

Introduction Nowadays, industry is developing more than ever before and this has a major influence on pollution of our planet. The amount of gas that factories release into the air on a daily basis is enormous. Also, vehicles represent a big factor of pollution of cities ecosystem. For example, people who live in Beijing wear masks all day to try to reduce the amount of pollution that gets into their organism. This should create a big concern for what can happen in ten, twenty, or …


Human Population Growth and Ecosystem Impacts

The Florida Everglades is a complex ecosystem located in Southern Florida that is being hurt by human population growth. It is one of the largest wetlands in the world and used to be part of a watershed hundreds of years ago. The "historic Everglades” spanned more than 3,000,000 acres from Lake Okeechobee to Florida Bay. However, it started to shrink when settlers came in the early 1900's and used the Everglades' water for agricultural purposes and to use the land for houses.…


The Ecological Impact Of Lead Poisoning

Intro In the article, “The political ecology of lead poisoning in eastern North Carolina” (Hanchette, 2007) Hanchette studied the ecological impact of lead poisoning in eastern North Carolina and childhood blood lead levels. The elevated blood lead levels dropped from 88% to 2.2% from the late 1970s to 2000. But however, this is not the case in many eastern North Carolina counties. Testing Hanchette used LISA and Moran's I statistical analysis to spatially interpret the…


A Study on Landfills

Introduction Did you know? Americans use enough cardboard each year to make a bale as big as a football field and as high as the World Trade Center Towers. We even throw away so much aluminum every three months that we can rebuild our entire commercial air fleet. Each person, yes, included you, in America creates about 4.4 pounds of trash every single day. Did you also know? That it takes 100 years for tin to break down, 500 years for aluminum, and glass takes one million year…


World Wildlife Fund Historical Analysis Term Paper

The World Wildlife fund is one of the world's largest conservation non-governmental organizations, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of humanity's impression on the environment. Since founded in 1961, WWF's mission has been to stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment. WWF focuses all its efforts across the world toward reaching six main goals in the areas of Forests, Oceans, Wildlife, Food, Climate & Energy, and Water. It …


A Research on Biodiversity Issue

Biodiversity is described by Ruth Patrick as, Ithe presence of a large number of species of animals and plants.l(Patrick 15). In other words, biodiversity is the term for the measure of the variety of different species that do exist still on our plant. These species can range from the simplest bacteria to the very complex primates. Biodiversity can relate locally or globally. For example the Southern New England forest contains 20 or 30 tree species while in the rainforest of Peru there are hun…


Animal and Plant Ecosystem Research

Introduction: Without ecosystems, how would living organisms prosper? The balance that is created in ecosystems between different communities, different population between species, competitions over materials, and more all fall under the umbrella of one specific topic: Ecology. Ecology is basically a category of Biology that studies the interactions and relationships between living/nonliving things and their surroundings. Everything starts when a producer absorbs sunlight from the sun. Th…


Impact of Uranium on Iraq

Part 1 Depleted uranium munitions are, in my opinion, almost impossible to defend. They're used to kill thousands in Iraq and other places every year. As if regular bullets aren't deadly enough, depleted uranium munitions release radiation as they hit their intended target, exploding and sending deadly radiation in a nearby radius. This radiation kills innocent people, not only soldiers. And there's the issue of friendly fire too; what about our own troops who get hit by these we…


A Study About A Hall of Biodiversity

Hall of biodiversity is a resource center for keeping variety of living things. Spectrum of life can be seen every one who enters here. A vast array of living creatures interacts and co-exists within a single ecosystem. The environment comprises life-size Dzanga -Sangha Rain forest and filled with smells and sounds of living species. The resource center offers an in-depth exploration of various peculiarities and threats to biodiversity. Different organizations and individuals can work to preser…


Ozon Layer and a Growing Problem of Depletion

The Ozone Layer: What does it do and what happens when it is depleted? The ozone layer is one of the most debated scientific subjects of the last decade. The growing problem of its depletion is being researched heavily all over the world, and methods are being researched to try and solve the problem. There have also been many debates concerning the relationship between the ozone layer and the onset of global warming. Before solutions can be developed, however, what the ozone layer actually does…


Pluses and Minuses of Geoengineering

It is horrifying to think that with each passing day, we tumble closer to the end of the world. But even in a utopia, this fact would be true. Consequently, in our less-than-perfect world, there are many factors that speed up this process. Climate change, for example, has become a pressing issue that could result in dire consequences for both humanity and the Earth. Humans place the environment under constant stress, and considering that one year in relation to all time is the blink of an eye, …


A Research on Ecoagriculture Issue

Activity 1 Ecoagriculture describes the process of cultivating land that both supports the production of agriculture as well as promotes biodiversity. It is highly beneficial to rural communities as it can yield a good amount of agricultural products while still maintaining and even increasing the fruitfulness of the soil and plant life. In order for ecoagriculture to be implemented successfully, a high amount of biodiversity must be used. Biodiversity is the amount of variation of life form…


A Problem of Colony Collapse Disorder

Introduction Honey bees are so vital to the horticultural sector that any problem in their colonies would mean disaster to fruit, nut, seed and vegetable production. In Colony Collapse Disorder, also known as CCD, the worker bees in cultured bee colonies abruptly disappear, leaving combs that are full of honey. There was no appropriate name for this unexplained disappearance of adult worker bees; hence, the name "Colony Collapse Disorder" was crafted. To date, the cause of Colony C…


Research on Fish Population in the World's Ocean

Background info The population of fish in the world's oceans has greatly decreased in the last few decades, and is projected to completely collapse in 2048 if current rates continue. Over 25% of fish stocks are being overexploited, and 52% are being exploited to their fullest, with new boats coming on all the time. This means that if left unchecked, over 75% of fish stocks will be severely crippled and will possibly never recover. Marine biologist Stephen Palumbi from Stanford says that …


Best Practices of Supply Chain Management

Supply chain management is the integrated process-oriented planning and control of the flow of goods, information and money across the entire value and supply chain from the customer to the raw material supplier. Retail companies become involved in supply chain management to control product quality, inventory levels, timing, and expenses. In a global economy, supply chain management often includes dealings with companies and individual contributors in other countries, which requires involvement…


A Research on Water Biomes

Marshland is covered with grasses, reeds, sedges, and cattails. These plants all have their roots in soil covered or saturated with water and its leaves held above water.Marshes may be freshwater or salt. Freshwater marshes develop along the shallow edges of lakes and slow-moving rivers, forming when ponds and lakes become filled with sediment. Salt marshes occur on coastal tidal flats. Inland salt marshes occupy the edges of lakes. They affect the supply of nutrients, the movement of water, an…


A Research on the Common Forms of Ecological Fallacy

Throughout social research studies, various errors may occur and often such errors compromise the quality of research data, and this may lead to inaccurate research reports. One of the typical mistakes that can be frequently noticed in the social research procedures is the ecological fallacy, which occurs in the process of statistical data interpretation. The ecological fallacy arises when the deduction of the inferences on individual characteristics depends on the assumptions of the group…