Australia is facing dramatic declines in many of their species and some natural sources, such as water supply, are becoming scarce. This is due to climate change and new plants and animals being introduced to the area. Around 7% of the agricultural area of western Australia is being affected by a change in water quality due to deforestation. Along with diminishing water quality, about 13% of the original vegetation of the area has been removed after these clearing activities. The biodiversity of Australia is also being challenged by overgrazing, resulting in the disappearance of original grasslands.
Australia’s fish stocks are now at dangerously low levels after overfishing acts.
These species include the southern bluefin tuna, orange roughy, and many more. One major ongoing issue within the country is that around 20 new pests or diseases are introduced each year which affects an island of this size greatly. Predictions noted online estimate that almost 19,000 tonnes of phosphorus and 141,000 tonnes of nitrogen are released each year to rivers that flow to the coast.
This is the result of intensive agriculture in the area. Along the coastline of Australia there is a continuing growth of population that have formed metropolitan areas that have the ability to ruin important biodiversity and agricultural land, as well. Along with all of this, Australia is also facing rising sea levels and hotter, drier conditions. These weather changes increase the risk of fires and heat waves which both are extremely dangerous to the population.
There are many impacts of climate change that are currently affecting Morocco.
Soil erosion due to overgrazing, deforestation, and poor conservation practices, as well as water pollution is ravishing the area. Dumping industrial wastes and raw sewage into the ocean, along with oil pollution, has contaminated Morocco’s water supply. The environment is also being disrupted by pesticides, insect infestation, and oil spills. Illegal wildlife destruction has threatened many species of the area like the crested coots and white-headed ducks. About 182 plant species, 18 mammal species, and 11 bird species are currently being threatened by elimination of living areas.
One major impact that has resulted in numerous other harmful changes in the expanding desert. Temperatures in Morocco have been rising to extreme levels, leading to even drier conditions and drought. Morocco’s longest river, the Draa River, is now dry for the majority of the year. Land previously used for farming has now been basically converted into barren, desert area. This means that there are fewer suitable areas for animals and nomadic herders to live. The result of this is not only lessening food and clothing sources, but even transportation for many of the people who live there. All of these changes are forcing many people to change their way of life. Nomadic people are being forced to alter into village life, where there are new sets of rules, social customs, and even unattainable jobs.
Australia’s “Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to a new Climate Change Agreement” is divided into three main sections; their commitment, contribution, and plans. The first policy outlined pushes support for businesses and the community to reduce emissions, while developing better productivity and economic growth. Australia’s plan is to introduce an economy-wide target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% by 2030. They also have a goal of inhibiting the global average temperature to below two degrees Celsius. Australia states that their target of cutting emissions is comparable to other advanced countries’ targets. Their target will place the country on a stable path to longer term reductions in the future.
They have “Australia’s Emissions Reduction Fund,” which provides support to Australian businesses to lower emissions and improve productivity simultaneously. Australia has policy measures in place to enhance the distribution of renewable energy and efficient energy. Over 23% of Australia’s electricity should be provided by renewable sources by 2020 under Australia’s “Renewable Energy Target” scheme. The INDC went on to state that the government was launching a range of policies that would reduce emissions even after 2020, with a target of 40% improvement between 2015 and 2030. These policies would also attempt to improve efficiency of light and heavy vehicles. The end of the INDC explains that the government would engage in dialogue to determine future domestic emissions reduction policies in 2017-2018. The target is summarized as an absolute reduction of emissions by 2030. Australia is focused on the energy, industrial processes and product use, agriculture, land-use, and waste sectors.
Morocco’s INDC is an extremely detailed layout of their desire to counter climate change impacts with regard to mitigation, adaptation, and implementation. It is an outline of their vision for Morocco by the year 2030. Their focus is on the energy sector, but also have plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through “economy-wide actions.” There is also a focus on the agriculture, water, waste, forests, industry, and housing sectors. The country’s goal is to reduce GHG emissions by 32% by 2030, contingent upon gaining access to required sources of finance and support. Their targets require an investment of $45 billion to be achieved. They state that between 2005-2010, Morocco dedicated 64% of all climate-related spending to adaptation, and expect to dedicate at least 15% of the overall investment budgets to the same.
The pressure on natural resources has increased due to the economic and social development of the country, resulting in impacts on the forests and agriculture of the area. Water scarcity is also a large issue to be resolved. Their overall plan is to alter its territory and civilization to become stronger against climate change and working on a quick transition to a low-carbon economy. This can only be done with international support. Morocco wants to reach over 50% of installed electricity production capacity from renewable sources by 2025, reduce energy consumption by 15% by 2030, reduce fossil fuels by using prior reforms, and increasing the use of natural gas through different projects.
Their mitigation targets include an unconditional target of a 13% reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 and a conditional target of an additional 19% reduction under the wanted conditions. Morocco has already began its transition to a green economy as of 2015. They have a national energy strategy, national waste recovery program, national liquid sanitation and wastewater treatment program, the Morocco green plan, and the preservation and sustainable forest management strategy. Their INDC also includes respect for human rights and gender balance as important pillars to work on climate change. Their ultimate vision is to protect the population, especially in the more vulnerable areas, protect natural heritage, biodiversity, and resources. They are committed to making a National Adaptation Plan up to 2030 and to have other regions adopt their system to monitor vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.