Disposal of waste in the sea with the purpose of burial (dumping). Many landlocked countries produce a marine burial site for various materials and substances, in particular soil taken from dredging, drilling slag, industrial waste, construction waste, solid waste, explosives and chemicals, radioactive waste. The volume of graves was about 10% of the total mass of pollutants entering the World Ocean. The basis for dumping in the sea is the possibility of the marine environment to process a large number of organic and inorganic substances without much water damage.
However, this ability is not unlimited. Therefore, dumping is considered as a forced measure, a temporary tribute to society in the imperfection of technology. The dumping of dumping materials to the bottom and the prolonged increased turbidity of the water supplied lead to the death from suffocation of sedentary forms of benthos. In surviving fish, shellfish and crustaceans, the growth rate is reduced due to deterioration in diet and respiration. Often the species composition of this community changes.
Thermal pollution. Thermal pollution of the surface of water bodies and coastal marine areas arises from the discharge of heated sewage by power stations and some industrial industries. The discharge of heated water in many cases causes an increase in water temperature in reservoirs by 6-8 degrees Celsius. The solubility of oxygen decreases, and its consumption increases, as the activity of aerobic bacteria decomposing organic matter intensifies with increasing temperature. The species diversity of phytoplankton and the whole algae flora is increasing.
Based on the generalization of the material, it can be concluded that the effects of anthropogenic impact on the aquatic environment are manifested at the individual and population-biocenotic levels, and the long-term effect of pollutants leads to a simplification of the ecosystem.
The soil cover of the Earth is an important component of the Earth’s biosphere. It is the soil shell that determines many processes occurring in the biosphere.
The most important significance of soils is the accumulation of organic matter, various chemical elements, and also energy. The soil cover serves as a biological absorber, destroyer and neutralizer of various contaminants. If this link in the biosphere is destroyed, then the existing functioning of the biosphere will irreversibly be disrupted.
One of the types of anthropogenic impact is contamination with pesticides.
Pesticides as a polluting factor. The discovery of pesticides – chemical means of protecting plants and animals from various pests and diseases – is one of the most important achievements of modern science. However, as a result of long-term use of pesticides in agriculture, medicine almost everywhere is characterized by a decrease in effectiveness due to the development of resistant pest races and the spread of ‘new’ pests, whose natural enemies and competitors have been destroyed by pesticides. Excessive use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, defoliants) adversely affects the quality of the soil. It is very important to create and apply only drugs with a short lifespan, measured in weeks or months. In this case, some progress has been achieved and preparations are being introduced with a high rate of destruction,
Sour atmospheric attacks on the land. One of the most acute global problems of the present and foreseeable future is the problem of increasing acidity of atmospheric precipitation and soil cover. Areas of acid soils do not know the drought, but their natural fertility is lowered and unstable; they are quickly depleted and the yields on them are low. Acid rain causes not only acidification of surface waters and upper horizons of soils. Acidity with downward flow of water extends to the entire soil profile and causes significant acidification of groundwater. Acid rain occurs as a result of human economic activity, accompanied by the emission of colossal amounts of oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. These oxides, transported to the atmosphere are transported over long distances, interact with water and turn into solutions of a mixture of sulfur, sulfuric, nitrogenous, nitric and carbonic acids, which fall out in the form of ‘acid rains’ on land, interacting with plants, soils, and waters. The main sources in the atmosphere are burning of oil shale, oil, coal, gas in the industry, in agriculture, in everyday life. Human economic activity almost doubled the release of sulfur oxides, nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide into the atmosphere.
Conservation of nature is the task of our century, a problem that has become social. Again and again we hear about the danger that threatens the environment, but until now many of us consider them an unpleasant but inevitable outgrowth of civilization and believe that we will have time to cope with all the difficulties that have arisen.
However, the human impact on the environment has assumed alarming proportions. To radically improve the situation, you will need targeted and thoughtful actions. A responsible and effective policy towards the environment will be possible only if we accumulate reliable data on the current state of the environment, a sound knowledge of the interaction of important environmental factors, if we develop new methods for reducing and preventing harm caused to Nature by Man.