Global warming is a phenomenon related to nature. It is caused by the accumulation of greenhouse effect, which leads to the imbalance of energy absorbed and emitted by the geo-atmospheric system, and the mass of energy in the geo-atmospheric system, which leads to temperature rise and global warming. Since people burn fossil fuels, such as oil, coal, etc., or cut down forests and burn them, they produce large amounts of carbon dioxide, or greenhouse gases, which are highly permeable to visible light from solar radiation and highly absorbent of long-wave radiation emitted by the Earth and can be actively absorbed.
Infrared radiation in the surface radiation causes the earth’s temperature to rise. Global warming will redistribute global precipitation, melting glaciers and permafrost, rising sea level and so on, endanger not only the balance of natural ecosystems but also threaten the survival of humanity.
Driver of Climate Change From 1906 to 2005, the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere near the planet rose by 0.
74 degrees Celsius. Generally speaking, the scientific community has found that noticeable climate change over the past 50 years has doubled the rate of change over the past 100 years, so it was inferred that climate change during this period was driven by human activity. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are increasing. It is the central part of human-made factors of global warming. According to data , atmospheric nitrogen monoxide (N2O) content increased from 275 ppbv(parts per billion by volume) to 310 ppbv(parts per billion by volume), carbon dioxide (CO2) content from 280 ppmv(parts per million by volume) to 360 ppmv(parts per million by volume)), and methane (CH4) from 700 ppbv to 1,720 ppbv from the mid-18th century (1750) industrial revolution.
These growth trends are mainly due to human activities. Burning fossil fuels, clearing forests and farming has enhanced the greenhouse effect. Since 1950, changes in solar radiation and volcanic activity have produced warmer results than human emissions of greenhouse gases. More than 30 research groups confirmed these conclusions from eight industrial nations. Changes in Temperature Global land and ocean temperatures rose by 0.75 degrees Celsius from 1860 to 1900, according to instrumental records. Since 1979, land temperatures have risen twice as fast as ocean temperatures (land temperatures have increased by 0.25 degrees Celsius and ocean temperatures by 0.13 degrees Celsius). According to satellite temperature detection, the tropospheric temperature rises by 0.12 degrees to 0.22 degrees every ten years.
In the 1,000 or 2,000 years before 1850, although there were warm periods in the Middle Ages and the Little Ice Age, people believed that global temperatures were relatively stable. According to a study by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2005 was the second warmest year since the Earth’s temperature record began in the 1800s, 0.06 degrees below the 1998 annual average surface temperature record. Similar estimates were made by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the British Climate Research Unit (UK), which predicted 2005 to be the second warmest year after 1998. There are some temperature records in the modern history of humanity. These records come from different places, with varying accuracy and reliability. Global thermometer records were recorded in 1860, and it is believed that these records were rarely affected by the urban heat island effect.
In 1979, the temperature of troposphere was measured by satellite temperature measurement. From the Fig.1 we can know that the temperature changes during the last 2000 years. More recent reconstructions are plotted towards the front and in redder colors, older reconstructions appear towards the back and in bluer colors. An instrumental history of temperature is also shown in black. Fig. 1 Reconstructed Temperature (Robert A. Rohde,2005) After 2000, high-temperature records were often broken. On August 11, 2003, the grove town of Switzerland recorded an album of 41.5 degrees Celsius, breaking the 139-year history. In the same year, on August 10th, London’s temperature reached 38.1 degrees Celsius, breaking the 1990 record. In July 2005, two hundred cities in the United States all had actual high temperatures.
On August 16, 2007, the temperature in Yamaguchi, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, was as high as 40.9 degrees, breaking the record of the mountain city in 1933. The Reason for Climate Change –Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gases are transparent to the shortwave radiation of the sun. However, they absorb the infrared radiation of some long waves from the earth (black body radiation). This makes it difficult for the planet to cool down. They can warm up the surface as much as global warming potential. Concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere have risen by 31% and 149% since 1750, respectively, compared with pre-industrial levels (280 million centimeters). The current level has been higher than 380 ppmv and is about to break through 400 ppmv. Reliable data from ice cores suggest that this is a significant jump compared with the past 650,000 years.
From some indirect geological evidence, it is reasonable to believe that the carbon dioxide content of the past 40 million years is relatively high. In the past 20 years, about 3/4 of all human-made carbon dioxide emissions are fossil fuels. Other anthropogenic emissions are land use, especially deforestation. In 1958, the most extended continuous instrumental measurements of carbon dioxide mixing ratios were carried out on Manually Peak, about 3,400 meters above sea level on the Hawaiian Big Island. Since then, annual measures have been found to be on the rise, as the Keeling Curve shows, from 315 ppmv to more than 380 ppmv in 2006, an increase of about 21%. The results show that carbon dioxide content changes slightly seasonally every month and additions year-round as a whole. Fig. 2 Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.