Water is an atomic structure that links to one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms (Patrick, Brezonik & William, 2011). Water is unique with an electrochemical aspect due to its structure. The two hydrogen atoms are negative which contributes to the water molecule bending the structure to a 104.5-degree angle and the oxygen atom is positive. Water`s chemistry includes pH, alkalinity, hardness, cation, anions, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. In addition, anions are ions with a negative element and can react with cations, which are ions with positive valence, then when electrons are shared an electroneutrality state is created.
The pH of raw water determines the basicity or acidity. Neutral water has a pH of 7.0, which pH below seven is acidic, while a pH above 7.0 is alkaline. Water pH is crucial to determine the basicity levels of bicarbonate, carbonates hydroxide ions, and carbon dioxide. Where water naturally occurs, alkalinity results in the form of bicarbonate alkalinity (HCO3-). Water hardness measures the calcium and magnesium, or calcium carbonate detected in water (Farah & Terrell, 2019).
It is often reported as mg/l as CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). Solids that are dissolved in water cause problems such as taste, but animals are highly affected more than humans by this issue. The higher ions in water also cause high conductivity, however, pure water with no ions is unable to regulate water.
The history acquired in studying the chemistry of water can be applied in the treatment of wastewater. Treatments used as chemicals and physical processes to treat wastewater, understanding water chemistry such as hardness, turbidity, and alkalinity is needed for the treatment process.
Water that is treated for consumption: people require clean, safe water and wastewater categorized as colored water to filter clothes and begin filtration. Furthermore, filtration for sediments such as sand and other rock grains is cleared. Water`s chemistry accommodates a variety of knowledge, techniques, and treatment regarding domestic water quality for the public`s consumption.
Manufacturing drinking water involves the removal of contaminants from nonpotable water to supply water that is pure enough for human and animal consumption with short and long-term health risks such as parasitic illnesses and cancers. Since the population never stops increasing, the demand for drinking water will continue to increase. Researchers and scientists take into account the desalination process to supply the demand of the population. In addition, this process is the removal of salt that is in water. Furthermore, water chemistry plays an essential role in the abundance of diversity of aquatic life that lives in streams.