Classification of Natural Disaster

INTRODUCTION

Natural disasters are happening now and again in the circle. There are various classifications of natural disasters. Natural disasters lead to numerous impacts on nations. The misfortunes incorporate loss of lives, work, resources, etc. Natural disasters cause a significant effect on countries. The financial loss of disasters could be destructing and all-inclusive. At the point when disaster strike houses, organizations and network foundation get harmed and individuals' job is briefly and here and there for all time disturbed. Physical harm is the most obvious financial effect of catastrophes. Be that as it may, the less obvious effects, for example, lost pay through being not able to exchange are similarly as critical and the outcomes regularly last longer than the physical harm. The flown-on impacts through a network can be inescapable.

The scope of financial impacts and consequences for a calamity influenced network to differ extremely and rely upon both the idea of the occasion and the financial strength of the network. It is likewise critical to perceive that networks are various. Once in a while, disaster-affected systems recover and flourish, in others, the adversarial monetary impact has a domino sway that spreads all through the system. Natural disasters cause significant budgetary pressures, with both narrowly economic short-term impacts and wider long-term development implications. Reallocation is the primary fiscal response to the disaster. Disasters have little impact on trends in total aid flows.

As a general rule loss of salary through the loss of exchanging action and the time taken to restore such action, especially for agriculture ventures, is neglected. The outcomes of broadened times of exchanging or creation downtime can bring constrained deal, business conclusion, loss of experienced specialists, a drained client base, and population shrinkage. These consequences are exacerbated by community losses resulting in a reduction in disposable income.

These are significant inquiries and are basic to understanding the financial recovery process. The standards and procedures recognized later in this report give a beginning stage to thinking about these inquiries. The financial outcomes of disasters can be ordered in a variety of ways. No single system will cover and endorse each possible effect a natural disaster may have. Every disaster has novel qualities and thus in any endeavor to order these effects there will consistently be impacts that don't fit flawlessly inside the grouping.

This study titled as the economic impact of natural disasters on the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries.

Rationale of the Study

The revealed worldwide expense of natural disaster has risen altogether, with a 15-crease increment between the 1950s and 1990s. Such generally referred to figures have set off a developing consciousness of the potential harm characteristic natural hazards can cause. In any case, there is a progressively restricted feeling of their more extensive macroeconomic issues they could posture for longer-term advancement. This is incompletely in light of the fact that most evaluations of the economic effects of disasters have focused on the most handily estimated direct impacts - that is, the money related expense of noticeable physical harm.

This emphasis on damages, thus, emerges from the worries to meet the transient human needs of influenced individuals in the fallout of a disaster, and weights to decide substitution investment necessities and protected damages. It likewise mirrors the viable troubles of segregating and estimating the roundabout and auxiliary effects that outcome from the transmissions of a disaster stun through the economy. Such effects could incorporate, for instance, impacts on the progression of goods and services and budgetary results and at last changes in economic growth, generation and distribution of income and the frequency of poverty.

A further confinement of the current studies is that the vast majority of any investigations to have inspected indirect effect of a recently occurred catastrophe. There are limited studies regarding the countries having a series of natural disasters occurred on a frequent basis. It has a greater impact on the nation's economy.

These inclinations of economic evaluation have seriously limited the data accessible to policy makers on the nature and size of the weakness of various economies to regular damages. This could thus have added to what many see as a boundless inability to address normal risks as a danger to sustainable development, and a general absence of valuation for the possibly high financial and social comes back to disaster decrease. There are obviously numerous issues that increasingly precise review about the manner in which catastrophes or disasters are conceptualized, and impacts are evaluated inside the structure of economic analyzation that justifies this study.

Statement of the Purpose

This study tries to find out the impact of natural disasters on different selected countries and its impact on the countries’ economy. The natural disasters can cause direct as well as indirect impacts.

This study tries to address the following research questions:

  1. Which are the natural disasters occurred in various countries (only selected countries for the study)?
  2. What are the economic impacts of these natural disasters to the countries?
  3. Which are the disaster management authorities in these countries?
  4. What are the measures and policies of various governments regarding natural disasters?
  5. What are the roles of social workers at time of natural disasters?

An overview of natural disasters

As stated by the United Office for Disaster Risk Reduction(UNDRR), a disaster can be defined as “a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or society involving widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope with using its resources”. (UNDRR, n.d.)

The disasters can be classified into various categories:

  1. SUDDEN-ONSET DISASTERS – It comprise hydro meteorological hazards such as flooding, windstorms, and geophysical hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis or volcanic eruptions.
  2. SLOW-ONSET DISASTERS – It relates to environmental degradation processes such as drought and desertification, increased salinization, rising sea levels or thawing of permafrost. (Platform on Disaster Displacement, n.d.)

Natural disasters by type

The category or type of natural disasters that occurs in the planet are:

  1. Earthquakes
  2. Volcanoes
  3. Landslides
  4. Famines & Droughts
  5. Hurricanes, Tornados, and Cyclones
  6. Extreme precipitation and flooding
  7. Extreme Temperature (Heat & Cold)
  8. Wildfires
  9. Lightning

The following are some of the world’s worst natural disasters:

  1. Irpine earthquake in Italy (1980)
  2. Drought in USA (1988)
  3. Kobe earthquake in Japan (1995)
  4. Atlantic Hurricane season in USA (2005
  5. Tohaku earthquake/Tsunami in Japan (2011)
  6. Sichuan earthquake in China (2008)
  7. Floods in Thailand (2011)
  8. Hurricane Sandy in USA (2012)
  9. Floods in Kerala and other various parts in India (2018,2019)

All these disasters caused severe losses to the nations. These losses include loss of lives, physical and economic loss, and so on. A natural disaster is the event of an abnormal or rare hazard that impacts on vulnerable community or geological zones, causing generous harm, disturbance and potential losses and leaving the influenced communities unfit to work ordinarily. From an economic point of view a disaster suggests a mix of losses regarding human, physical and money related capital, and a decrease in economic activity, for example, income and investment, production, consumption and work in the real economy. There may likewise be extreme effects regarding financial flows, for example, income and use of public and private bodies. (Benson & Clay, 1998).

Hydro-meteorological risks present dangers of changing intensity that are generally perceived at a local or national level, and there is therefore some type of adjustment as far as economic conduct and the innovation in which capital – profitable, housing and environment or infrastructure – is incorporated. The economic, and obviously more extensive social, results of individual events seem, by all accounts, to be helpless to examination for most lower- and middle-income generating nations. Interestingly, possibly cataclysmic geophysical hazards might be uncommon in event. Indeed, even in conceivably high-chance topographical areas there may have been no extraordinary occasion in living memory or even inside the chronicled record. Thus, such dangers present very various issues of hazard perception and economic conduct. Notwithstanding, a worldwide wonder, satellite TV and connected media data might be changing impression of hazard related with these kinds of danger as well.

The death counts from disaster events can be exceptionally factor from year-to-year; a few years go with not many passing before an enormous fiasco occasion claims numerous lives. Low-recurrence, high-impact occasions, for example, quakes and tidal waves are not preventable, yet such high losses of human life are. We know from chronicled information that the world has seen a huge decrease in a disaster death rates through prior expectation, stronger framework, crisis preparation, and reaction systems. Those at low incomes are frequently the most vulnerable against disaster occasions: improving expectations for standard of living, foundation and response frameworks in these districts will be vital to keeping passing from catastrophic events in the coming decades.

A disaster is an abrupt, cataclysmic occasion that genuinely upsets the working of a network or society and causes human, material, and monetary or natural misfortunes that surpass the network's or society's capacity to adapt utilizing its own assets. Despite the fact that frequently brought about ordinarily, debacles can have human starting points.

(VULNERABILITY+ HAZARD) /CAPACITY = DISASTER

A debacle happens when a danger impacts on helpless individuals. The blend of dangers, helplessness and failure to lessen the potential negative outcomes of hazard brings about debacle. (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies., 2017)

Figure1

Source: Adopted from International Disaster Database

Figure 1 depicts the death rates from various natural disasters from 1978 to 2018 globally. All around, over the previous decade, natural disasters represented a normal of 0.1% of total rate of deaths. This was, be that as it may, profoundly factor to high-affect occasions and went from 0.01% to 0.4% of total death rates. Human effects from catastrophic events are not completely caught in death rates. Injury, vagrancy, and uprooting would all be able to significantly affect population

Earthquakes

Earthquake happen out of nowhere, typically with no notice signs, and can cause tremendous distraction. In spite of the fact that there is a different part of science alluded to as seismology that learn about tremors and attempts to predicts their event in any case, it doesn't help in deciding the specific time or date of this common disaster. Researchers around the globe continually attempt to anticipate the event of seismic tremors. While seismology office warns against Earthquake in specific zones in future anyway it can't discover regarding when precisely it would happen.

As it is stated, little information is perilous thus faltering expectations about earthquakes accomplish more mischief to the individuals than great. Individuals start to live in steady dread of tremor. Frenzy among individuals living in such territories can be seen unmistakably as they can barely do much about shielding themselves from the conceivable pulverization caused because of this regular disaster. Be that as it may, seismic tremors aren't constantly serious and ruinous. Now and again, these are little and mellow. Now and then, these are gentle to such an extent that individuals don't become acquainted with that these have happened. Notwithstanding, even at the smallest of tremors, it is recommended to clear the structures and turn out in an open zone to guarantee wellbeing. Earthquake occasions happen over the world consistently.