Construction Shortcomings

Categories: Water Pollution

Introduction

Gerald Desmond Bridge is located in California, Long Beach. The name of the bridge came after a former city attorney and a prominent civic leader known as Gerald Desmond. It was built of steel and was meant to replace the pontoon bridge that was constructed in 1944. It is an arch bridge with four lanes of Ocean Boulevard from Interstate 710 connecting Terminal Island with Long Beach, California. The construction of the bridge commenced on October 19, 1965, and was completed in June 1968. The bridge is well known for its size as it is 1,565 meters long, 21 meters wide and the longest span is 161 meters.

The bridge is expected to experience daily traffic of 62,057 people. The clearance above is 6 meters and the clearance below is 47 meters. The bridge was designedMoffatfart and Nichol and was constructed by Bethlehem Steel for US$ 12,700,000. It was re-built from 1995 to 2000 and in 2018 it has been replaced by a cable-stayed span (United States Department of Transportation). The main purpose of the bridge is to connect the eastern end of Terminal Island to Long Beach to ease traffic emanating from the expansion of the adjacent shipyards.

It is the tallest structure of its kind in America.

Rialto Bridge is located in Vernicethe, Italy spanning the Grand Canal and is the oldest among the four bridges at the location. The bridge links the San Marco district to She a Polo district. Initially, it was built as a pontoon bridge in the 12th century and has been reconstructed severally and currently acts as a major tourist attraction.

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The construction of the bridge commenced in 1588 and ended in 1591. Its design is a stone arch bridge with a width of 8.90 meters, a height of 7.32 meters and the longest span is 31.80 meters. It was designed by Antonio da Ponte who was a Venetian designer. The construction was funded partly by an early form of the lottery (Simcic, 32). The main significance of the bridge is that it acts as the link across the canal and a tourist attraction.

Technical Discussion

The two bridges were constructed to serve different purposes mainly for economic purposes and transportation paths. Rialto acted as the main commercial and business center and all major trade houses and banks were built around the bridge. Therefore, Rialto Bridge was constructed for economic purposes as it was to serve the local traders enabling them to trade and transport their goods on both sides of the bridge. Since the first construction of the Rialto Bridge, it has been seen to facilitate trade between the traders in the region and it has maintained this purpose up to date although it has been coupled as a tourist attraction. This means that it acts as a transportation path and also controls the economic matters of the region. Gerald Desmond

The bridge’s main purpose of construction was to act as a transportation path linking Terminal Island and Long Beach, California. The bridge is used by many cars and trucks and this has resulted in the growth of the importance of the port to the economy. The bridge is used by at least 15 percent of all the cargo imported to the US by road meaning it acts as an economic control measure for the region (Mahmoud, 300.

Design

Structural Design

Gerald Desmond Bridge design is a through an arch bridge made of steel. It is 161 meters long with a suspended main span with 47 meters of vertical clearance spanning the Carritos Channel. It has lanes on the roadway on both sides and an additional climbing lane on either side. It is 2,682 meters in length, 157 meters in width and the longest span is 305 meters. It has a higher vertical clearance above the Back Channel which is 62 meters high. It has 2,800 long feet on the approach on the western side of the Terminal Island and 3,800 long feet eastern approaches which are supported through approximately 90 piers and 350 foundation piles. The bridge is suspended 2,000 feet more than 350 mi. of cable to the main and back spans. This allows the structure to hang across 220 feet wide port. It is designed to withstand earthquakes as it is strategically placed on hinges. The hinges are placed in various sections to prevent the bridge from being damaged as it provides for the space to move in case of an earthquake. The floor of the bridge is made up of a concrete slump of about 8 inches (United States Department of Transportation).

Rialto Bridge is 104.3 meters long with arches elevating 6.4 meters and rising above the Grand Canal. The bridge is a permanent stone structure with a spacious decking to accommodate a row of shops. It features a home of the original construction and uses the initially inclined ramps on the shores leading to the central portico passageway. The designer used Pietra d’Istra which is a bright white color calcareous rock as the basic construction material. The white stones clash with the wooden darkly painted shops to give the bridge an impressive look. The decking is carefully designed by paving with grey stones that look paler as they approach the edges of the steps. This design helps the users to spot the edges as they move across the bridge. The main deck of the construction is inclined at a significant angle of 160. This design makes it not possible for pedestrians to see the other side of the shore of the bridge (Openshaw and Steves, 342). Along the inclined sides, there are rows of shops that make the construction more distinctive. It also has a low arch spanning from the Grand Canal which is 28.8 meters wide and 6.4 meters high.

Foundation Design

Rialto Bridge is made of stone and is elected across the Grand Canal. The conditions on the ground resulted in to collapse of the work on several occasions. It is located on alluvial soil which is normally consolidated and the surroundings are slowly sinking resulting in the collapse of the bridge. The level of the groundwater affected the construction of the bridge and this made the foundation be constructed on piles driven deep into the clay. The main considerations during the laying down of the foundation were the sloping shores, the need for boats to pass under the bridge,e and having shops elected over the bridge. However, during the construction of the bridge, the architects had no technology to excavate deep into the waters and they perfected the techniques of spread footings. Six thousand timber piles were driven manually into the soil on either side of the bridge. They were later capped with stone grillages to ensure the abutment stones were laid perpendicular to the arch. The length of the piles was 3.3 meters long and helped in the distribution of large forces transferred into the abutments through the low rising arch (Tolley, 9).

Gerald Desmond Bridge foundation is made up of concrete which helps in suspending 161 meters of the main span above the water surface 47 meters high. The concrete pillars holding the bridge were deeply rooted in the banks of the waters. The construction of the bridge was based on the levels of the tides as the load was to ascend between 17 feet to 25 feet below the shore levels of water (O’Rourke, 1).

Comparing the Projects and Analyzing The Local Impact

The Local Impact

Both Rialto Bridge and Gerald Desmond Bridge impacted the local communities economically in various ways. The bridges were built to act as pathways for the people to move across the waters and this opened up a trade that has made the communities around thrive economically. Rialto Bridge acts as the link between the two sides and has opened up trade in the region. The construction of the bridge saw the emergence of the Venice market in the location and the market grew. The area is known for its large fish market and seafood which acts as the main source of income for the residents. The pop culture in the region and the bridge is also ca couple of tourist attractions and this has been fundamental in improving the economy of the region (Italy Heaven). The souvenir shops along with the bridge act as a tourist attraction and the locals view the bridge as an important crossing point. The location attracts at least 1000,000 tourists annually.

Gerald Desmond Bridge has been fundamental in driving the U.S economy as the location is becoming of paramount importance to a high number of trucks and cars. Approximately fifteen percent of all imports entering the United States of America usually use the bridge. This makes the bridge derive economic importance to the country as it allows free movement of imports and other goods for trade. The bridge also couples as a tourist attraction as people mostly engineering students and other people visit the location to see how the bridge was constructed bearing in mind its height which is far above other bridges in the region. Therefore, the bridge acts as a tourist attraction as well as a major boost to the regional economy as it facilitates trade.

Environmental Impacts

The construction of the two bridges has impacted the environment in various ways during the construction and even after completion. The bridges are man-made and this is a clear indication that they interrupted the normal existence of the ecosystems in the region. For example, the noises during the construction negatively affected aquatic life. The construction also saw disruptions to the ecosystem as the extraction of soils at the end pillars and the construction of the pillars affected the location and even the breeding of the aquatic life (O’Rourke, 40). The machines used in the construction also emitted carbon dioxide into Tinto air and this compromised the carbon levels in the region. The construction also resulted in water pollution as a result of the falling materials as well as the soil from the extraction sites at the shores.

After the construction, the areas have further suffered from pollution as a result of increased human activities and the moving automobiles. The noise pollution has also increased tremendously in the region and this has impacted the environment negatively. The increased human activities in the region have also led to water pollution as some wastes have found their way into the water sources (O’Rourke, 9). Therefore, the construction of both bridges calls the need for the authorities to ensure that they curb negative environmental impacts.

Construction

Describing Construction Work and Process

The main similarity between the two projects is that they were undertaken to help people move across the water obstacles and at the same time allow the boats and ships to move beneath. The two bridges are anchored from the shores of the water sources and this means that the pillars are inclined at a given angltoin to support the weight of the bridge and were made of concrete. However, the main difference among thebetweenbridgeisin the length, materials, and the design used in the construction (O’Rourke, 13). Rialto Bridge was designed to facilitate the movement of people across the waters as well as encourage trade as it was designed to host shops along the lanes. On the other hand, Gerald Desmond Bridge was constructed to ease traffic and was designed with four lanes and a pedestrian path. Although both were made of concrete and stones, the color of the stones sed was different as the Rialto Bridge used white-colored stones while Gerald Desmond Bridge stones were dull.

The two projects were both constructed to replace pontoon bridges that were aging and were becoming weak. The two projects aimed at providing an everlasting solution to the wooden structures which were not reliable as they wore out (O’Rourke, 23). They were replaced with stone and concrete structures that would last for a long. Before the commencement of the projects, various architectures were consulted and the best design was selected. To start the projects, the initial structures in the location that were being replaced were carefully used to derive the design of the new structure to be constructed. The pilings at the site served as the foundations for the projects that aimed at replacing the aging pontoons.

The two projects took different times to complete Rialto Bridge took three years starting from 1588 and ending in 1591 while Gerald Desmond Bridge took three years starting from October 19, 19,65, and ending in June 1968. The two projects used concrete, stones, and steel to construct the pillars. The materials’ main consideration was their strength to carry the weight of the materials as well as any other weight that might be subjected to the bridge. Gerald Desmond Bridge was built for US$ 12,700,000 and its measurements are1, 565 meters long, 21 meters wide and the longest span is 161 meters (O’Rourke, 20). Rialto Bridge was constructed using funds raised from a local lottery and has a width of 8.90 meters, a height of 7.32 meters and the longest span is 31.80 meters.

Unique Features

The two bridges are built of stone and have two sloped ramps leading to the middle portico and this allows the ships to pass beneath the bridge. The bridges are a single span meaning they are anchored at the ends to support the middle. The main uses of these projects are that they act as pathways for people and vehicles (Mahmoud, 350). They are used to facilitate trade between the interconnecting sides of the shores by facilitating a smooth flow of people across the water. The main benefits derived from the construction of the bridge are both economical and non-economical. The projects opened up trade between the two sides and these have acted as a source of economic prosperity for the regions. They also act as tourist attraction sites and this has enabled the countries to earn foreign currency from the tourists. The bridges are also used by residents for non-economic purposes as they move across the regions freely meaning they have facilitated the free movement of people.

Conclusion

Brief Summary

The two projects have economic importance to their respective countries and they facilitate trade between two locations by creating a linkage. The construction of the bridges followed the need to replace the aging and collapsing pontoons that were previously used in the areas. Gerald Desmond Bridge is located in California and is an arch bridge with four lanes of Ocean Boulevard from Interstate 710 connecting Terminal Island with Long Beach, California. The construction of the bridge commenced on October 19, 1965, and was completed in Jun 1968. The bridge is well known for its size as it is 1,565 meters long, 21 meters wide and the longest span is 161 meters.

Rialto Bridge is located in Vernice, Italy spanning the Grand Canal and is the oldest among the four bridges at the location. The bridge links the San Marco district o the San Polo district. Initially, it was built as a pontoon bridge in the 12th century and has been reconstructed severally and currently acts as a major tourist attraction. The construction of the bridge commenced in 1588 and ended in 1591. Its design is a stone arch bridge with a width of 8.90 meters, a height of 7.32 meters and the longest span is 31.80 meters.

The main advantages of the projects are that they opened up trade by creating a linkage between two locations separated by barriers caused by water. The projects have also coupled as touritouristactions in their respective regions enabling respective governments to earn foreign currency. However, the main disadvantage is that the construction has led to air and water pollution resulting from human activities. The projects have also led to an increase in expenditures as they involve high costs of maintenance. This is the main reason why the Gerald Desmond Bridge is in the process of replacement to introduce a modern bridge that is less expensive to maintain.

Problems the Engineers Faced and How were Problems Solved

The main challenges experienced by the engineers in the construction of the projects were delayed relocation or removal of existing old structures at the site. Other issues faced by the engineers include redesigning the projects during construction to deal with the changes that arise. The change in design means that the engineers had to start the work afresh to accommodate the changes to get the desired results. The engineers also faced challenges from the changing water levels and waves which compromised their work leading to delays in the completion of the project. To deal with the challenges, the projects were undertaken by various architects who consulted each other, and more funds were sought through public funding to cater to the increasing costs. For example, the construction of the Gerald Desmond Bridge was delayed as a resort to the relocation of old and active oil wells and utility lines (Mahmoud, 402).

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Construction Shortcomings. (2022, Jun 09). Retrieved from http://envrexperts.com/free-essays/essay-about-construction-shortcomings

Construction Shortcomings
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