Danger of Domestic Wastewater

Water is considered as the most important and priceless commodity on planet Earth. Water on Earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transpiration, condensation, precipitation and runoff, usually reaching the sea, It is one of the most essential thing that is required for every living being. In order to develop a healthy and hygienic environment, water quality should be monitored such that it lies within the respective standards. (Monika, 2013)

The environmental problems is caused by the increased population in the urban areas that has influenced the rate of water consumption and combined with increasing wastewater generation including industrials, municipal wastewater which from households. Domestic wastewater effluent becomes a contributor to diverse water pollution. Water pollution is a big problem particularly with improvement in the living standard of community in most of developing countries. (Wijaya and Soedjono, 2018)

Domestic wastewater is the water which is disposed from homes, offices and industry.it comes from toilets, sinks, showers, washing machine and industrial processes is called sewage that can contain excessive containments caused pollution in the environment. In order to prevent the pollution risks, wastewater treatment directly needed before the wastewater discharged to the environment Most of the domestic wastewater is generated as result of living habits, human disposal, residual liquid product, and waste from artificial installation wastewater treatment should be considered as part of ecological sustainability. Many aspects are very closely related with for the wastewater treatment, such as wastewater characteristic, space availability, technology, human resources, cost, and policy. Besides that, sustainability development of wastewater treatment plan is including many aspects, such as technology, financial, institutional, community involved, and environment. This study will focused domestic wastewater treatment for different technology to improve sustainability and development social life and environmental, included waste stabilization bond, Membrane treatment, osmoses, bioreactor

 OBJECTIVES

The main objective of the study treatments of the domestic wastewater for different technologies to increase re-use effectively and to protect environment and human health.

Specific objectives:

  1. To assess multiple technologies and technical to treated domestic waste water.
  2. To Enhanced re-use domestic waste water for different purpose depend on technology used.
  3. To know best method used for domestic waste water in terms of suitable cost-effective treatment scheme for a catchment area are essential and have many considerations including land availability, energy, effluent quality and operational simplicity.

Domestic waste water treatments technologies

There are different methods of treated waste water to base on gradual reduction of wastes, with the ultimate aim of eliminating those that have negative impact on the environment and health of human.

Domestic wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds for irrigation

Well designed and operated waste stabilization ponds (WSP) systems can satisfactory remove undesired constituents from wastewater such as biodegradable organic matter, suspended solids and pathogenic microorganisms, besides to promote the retention of nutrients which favorably contributes to the use of such effluents in agricultural irrigation (Mara, 2001). Such WSP are a well-known technology for the treatment of domestic wastewater and is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the most appropriated means of wastewater treatment when agricultural reuse is considered (WHO, 1989) specially for developing countries, due to its construction, operation and maintenance low costs (Arthur, 1983). Research developed by Silva (1982) has shown the high degree of treatment reached by the effluent of waste stabilization ponds, both in terms of organic matter and pathogenic microorganisms. The high hydraulic retention times (HRT), which are common in WSP systems, in conjunction with adverse factors to microorganisms, are the main cause of the high bacteriological quality effluent, which have also the characteristic of presenting high level of nutrients, being therefore, suitable for agricultural irrigation (Mara, 1996). According to Arthur (1983), WSP are the most suitable wastewater treatment option for developing countries located in tropical or subtropical regions, where generally land is available and cheap and climate is favorable for the treatment process.(Leite et al., 2009)

Advantages:

  1. Resistant to organic and hydraulic shock loads,
  2. High reduction of solids, BOD and pathogens,
  3. High nutrient removal if combined with aquaculture,
  4. Low operating costs,
  5. No electrical energy is required,
  6. No real problems with insects or odours if designed and maintained correctly.

Disadvantages/limitations:

  1. Requires a large land area,
  2. High capital costs depending on the price of land,
  3. Requires expert design and construction,
  4. Sludge requires proper removal and treatment.