The purpose of the study in terms of lacking access and control over water supplies. Another reason for this study is to explore the role of the family patriarch as root cause of women’s inequality. Furthermore, this study aims to explore the emotions bound up with water scarcity. Using technology negotiations over gender roles are starting to take place. Lastly, this study attempts to explore the role of tourism labor and its intersection with life stage and ethnicity and the consequent water struggle.
A total of over 100 respondents which comprised of 46 Mangarai, 36 Orang Lau (OL) and 17 national and international migrants, and a total of 77 interviews in participants homes or workplaces and 31 more respondents of five focus groups.
This study unveiled that tourism development is competing for water supplies with the local residents, pushing up prices beyond affordability. Women are disproportionally affected by the competition for water supplies from tourism since water work is women’s work. Women and men share their anger frustrations, worries, and stresses with regard to water access.
The women expressed emotional, physical and financial well-being as they struggle for water resulted from tourism, water privatization, and patriarchic systems. Tourism development has dramatically increased the cost of living and the cost of water. As it relates to limitation, this study has many focuses and the organization of the paper is unsound. In addition, there is only one woman out of 30 representatives and none of these are OL and there are only three OL men. This study restricts the chances of women’s voices, especially from OL communities.
This study answers the impact of water scarcity on women and the root why women experience challenges accessing water. The objective of this study is to (1) investigate the relationship between water and sanitation (WASH) access and social conditions before birth and pre-term birth (PTB) and low-infant birth weight (LBW) outcomes, and test whether social conditions modify the effect of WASH access on birth outcomes. 7,926 women who gave birth between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 in 2,274 villages or urban neighborhoods across 33 states and union territories of India. The result shows that PTB was associated with sharing a building/compound latrine versus private latrine access, but suggested an effect in the opposite direction for sharing a community/public latrine.
Open defecation, type of drinking water source, minutes per day spent fetching water, and one-way time to a drinking water source were not associated with PTB. LBW was associated with spending more than two hours per day fetching water compared to less than two hours and suggested an association with open defecation , but was not associated with other types of sanitation, type of drinking water source, or time spent to get to a drinking water source. Harassment of women and girls in the community was associated with both PTB and LBW. The data also showed a possible association of local crime with LBW. Statistically significant evidence of effect modification was only found for collective efficacy on the association between type of sanitation access and PTB. In addition, this study identified differences in effect size for walking time to the primary drinking water source and PTB by crime, sanitation access and PB by harassment, and total hours per day fetching water and LBW by collective efficacy.
As it relates to the limitation, this study includes risk of bias due to the reliance on self-reported birth outcomes. This study had limited sub-group sample sizes for testing effect modification. There is lack of potential maternal cofounders. This study cannot confirm causality and is vulnerable to bias and residual confounding. This study answers potential impact of accessing clean water to women’s health. This study can be useful answering more details of causes of these health issues because of the burdens of accessing clean water. This study explores gender roles of both domestic and productive water users and explores how these roles help women to improve their socio-economic status. The paper examines gender roles and responsibilities as multiple water users and analyzes operational income and expenditures associated with water-based home enterprise. 90 households, 15 from each of the six villages, were selected.
In each household, both male and female members were interviewed and focus group discussions were held separately for men and women. Participant’s observation and daily routing diagrams also supplemented information on physical labor input. The finding shows that women’s use of water for productive use not only increases their income earning potential, but also helps strengthen their bargaining positions. Another finding shows that women were found to be responsible for domestic chores and were significantly involved in livestock rearing and agricultural activities. Finally, women’s efforts in fetching water during shortages and their time and energy spent on collecting water, especially in no-source villages were significant. As it relates to limitation, this study did not have limitation. This study answers my questions related to soci