Different Effects of Global Warming

Global warming is the slow or gradual rise of temperature of the planet because of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. The effects of global warming is an ongoing controversy today. The general agreement in the scientific community is that the trend is largely human caused and may have serious long term effects. However, some scientists and policy makers disagree with this consensus. Climate change deniers argue that the rise in temperature is inside the range of the natural temperature fluctuations.

In Amanda MacMillan's (2016) study, scientists said that the 2015 drought in California was the worst water shortage, the state has experienced in 1200 years and because of global warming it has been intensified by 15 to 20 percent. The scientists have also said that the chances of having a similar drought has doubled over the past century. According to the atmospheric administration and National Oceanic, the United States experienced 10 climate and weather disasters. This has roughly cost the United States $10.8 billion. These disasters include wildfires, floods, drought, and storms. Roughly 90% of members reacted that human movement has had a essential impact over worldwide temperatures over the past 250 a long time, with the other 10% replying that it has been a auxiliary cause, and none replying either that people have had no impact or that temperatures have not expanded.

A team of researchers at the University of Southampton used previous data of climate models and they have come up with a theoretical equation which shows a direct relationship of CO2 emissions and global warming. The outcomes demonstrate each million-million tons of carbon produced will create one degree Celsius of an unnatural weather change. They likewise demonstrate that the development of carbon discharged in the course of the most recent 200 years will then keep going for a long time to centuries, regardless of the possibility that carbon outflows are in this way eliminated. According to Nasa's global warming effects the worldwide ocean level has ascended by around 8 inches since 1880. It is anticipated to rise another 1 to 4 feet by 2100. This will be because of water liquefying from ice and the development of seawater as it warms. Thus the waters from the oceans will continue to warm and sea levels will rise at an increased rate. A research report by Cicerone estimated that the temperature rise since the ice age is about 4 to % degrees Celsius. This change took place in a time period of 7000 years. However, in the past 200 hundred years the Earth has warmed by about 0.8 degrees Celsius which is about 40 percent of what had happened in 7000 years. This rate of change is greater than ten times the temperature change that stated at the end of the ice age.

Cicerones research also shows that in the past 8 hundred thousand years the measurements of air in the ice cores has stayed within a range of 170 to 300 parts per million. However, in the past 200 years there has been a rapid rise of air in ice core, about 400 ppm. Methane and CO2 have acted as an amplifier of air in the ice cores. Another effect that is observed is the rising sea levels. The effects of this is felt largely by greater intensity and frequency of storm surges. The sea level might rise a further of 0.5m to 1m if greenhouse gases increase at the current rate. This would result in the loss of mass of Greenland and West Antarctica's ice caps. However, the colder parts of Antarctica may gain mass because of increased moisture in the Earth's atmosphere. Observations show that the sea level has risen by 20 cm or 8 inches since the nineteenth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says we can anticipate that the sea levels will increase by 11 to 38 inches (28 to 98 centimeters) by 2100, this could cause a significant number of the urban areas along the U.S. East Coast to submerge.

According to Karmalkar, A. V., & Bradley, R. S. (2017, January 11) many areas in the Northern hemisphere have higher rates of warming than the global mean temperature. According to the research with the current rate of warming it is projected that there will be a 2 degrees Celsius rise in temperature in the next 10 to 20 years. The fastest region to experience this warming in the US is the northeast region, which is estimated to rise by 3 degrees Celsius. According to the study the anticipated rise in temperature of the globe will not affect the Earth at the same rate or evenly. Northern countries are expected to experience less or more adaptable changes than the tropical regions. The study also mentions Economic effects which could be much worse. The study used historical data and evidence to determine how changes in temperature affected the productivity or GDP of a particular region. The study only took account for rise in temperature, changes in sea level, storms or other climate changes were not taken account of. The study found that temperature rise would increase productivity in cold northern regions but consequently it would devastate the tropics. Global warming would worsen global inequality. In tropical regions scientists project that droughts, blizzards, heat waves and other extreme weather events will continue to occur more frequently. The climate model shows that these changes will likely cause major shift in temperature, precipitation and wind pattern in the tropics.

According to data presented by NASA and NOAA the warmest year on record was on 2016. If the average temperature is compared to the average temperature of the entire 20th century it is found that in the year of 2016 alone the temperature was 1.78 degrees Fahrenheit greater. Before 2016 the hottest year on record was 2015. The data also shows that 16 of the 17 hottest years that have occurred globally has happened after 2001. From the statistics provided by NASA, July 2017 was the hottest year in the last 137 years. It was approximately 0.83 degrees warmer than the usual temperature. The only month to show a similar temperature was the July of 2016. All other months were cooler by approximately a tenth of a Celsius.

According to Padhy, S. K., Sarkar, S., Panigrahi, M., & Paul, S. (2015) increased temperature will cause increased exposure to heat. Their study has found a relation between the aggressive behavior of people and rising temperatures. During the hot summer months, it has been observed that criminal activities increase, this suggests a link between aggression and global warming. With global warming it is possible that over the next few years aggression will increase. Behavioral and mental disorders are also linked to heat waves, Disorders in anxiety, and dementia has also shown to have increased.

A research by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (2014) that trees in the United states have been suffering because of shorter winters. Many pests like the pine bark beetle don't die. This results in them killing thousands of trees every year. An increase in forest fires also kills thousands of trees every year. Allergies such as asthma has also increased as a result. According to Mark Jacobson a Stanford University professor estimated that only a one degree change in temperature would cause 1000 people to die every year.

The National Academy of Sciences, (2014) anticipated that melting ice tops will make the sea level to rise by inches by 2100. That would be sufficient to surge the beachfront of Florida and the Carolinas. It said that waters could ascend as much as four feet. That would be sufficient to wipe out Shanghai, Hong Kong, Netherlands and Bangladesh. Hotter and rising seas could move the North Atlantic flow far from Europe. A large portion of Europe is north of the territory of Maine. Without the warm waters of the ebb and flow, Europe will progress toward becoming as chilly as Newfoundland.

According to The Sky is Falling Friday Part 4: Climate change to deplete some US water basins used for irrigation. (2017, July 14), in 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused $108 billion to $250 billion in damages. the GDP fell from 3.8 percent in Q3 to 1.3 percent in Q4 2005. In 2008, Hurricane Gustav and Hurricane Ike hit the United States. In spite of the fact that they didn't cause as much harm, they support the trend of more extreme tropical storms caused by a dangerous atmospheric deviation. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy overwhelmed New York City at its 500-year surge check. It cost $70 billion. That implies surge protection costs could increment by $2,000 per individual every year In 2017, Hurricane Harvey dropped 51 inches of rain on Texas in four days. It constrained 30,000 individuals out of their homes in Houston. Specialists foresee the harm will be approximate $150 billion. At that point Hurricane Irma crushed Florida, making $100 billion in damages.

Researchers concur that a worldwide temperature alteration cause typhoon like Harvey. In the first place, temperature is raised. Hotter air holds more dampness, so less rainfall. Hotter worldwide temperatures melt more polar ice and icy masses. This will raise the sea levels of Houston and its near areas beaches by six inches in the next 20 years. temperature boost can slow down climate designs. This is what enabled Harvey to float over Houston as opposed to moving retreat into the sea. The warming of the earth's atmosphere also depends on a link between radiation absorbed and the radiation that is released. The problems of temperature change from greenhouse gas emissions have caused issues from of fuel consumption. The combustion of fossil fuels results in large amounts of methane and CO2 because of an oxidation reaction between carbonaceous materials and hydrocarbons. These are added to the Earth's atmosphere. The effects of rising temperatures do not only affect the planet. Global can also affect the overall health of people. Large Urban Cities and towns are the main contributors of global warming. Haman casualties are caused by rising temperatures by dehydration and heat stroke. People who have heart problem have difficulty adapting and regulating normal body temperatures.

According to Bobea.Ortiz (2014) Hurricanes are heat engines. They operate based on the temperature difference between a warm ocean and a cooler high atmosphere. This is one of the reasons hurricanes lose energy rapidly when they reach land. Given this, adding heat to the oceans definitely contributes to the strength of hurricanes. What is predicted is that the overall trend will be increasing hurricane strength. This is something we see. So while we cannot point at Irma or Harvey and say, 'this is caused by global warming', we can reasonably conclude that global warming made these storms stronger, more powerful and more destructive.

Ice ages don't enter into this at all. Global warming will not bring about an ice age. It is about adding energy into the atmosphere. With more energy available, storms will tend to be stronger. With warmer seas, sea ice will be less. With warmer air, polar ice will be less. With less ice, less energy will be reflected back into space, further warming the planet. The end result isn't a new ice age. It's a warmer planet - possibly lethally so. A lot of poorer countries will see mass starvation, coastal cities will see rising sea levels.

Global warming is a real problem as shown by researchers and scientist, the controversy in it prevents people from coming up with real solutions. It is important for policy makers to look at the facts and take necessary actions. Worldwide warming caused by carbon dioxide contamination is secure our planet.

References

  • Karmalkar, A. V., & Bradley, R. S. (2017, January 11). Consequences of Global Warming of 1.5 °C and 2 °C for Regional Temperature and Precipitation Changes in the Contiguous United States. Retrieved October 16, 2017, from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0168697
  • Padhy, S. K., Sarkar, S., Panigrahi, M., & Paul, S. (2015). Mental health effects of climate change. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4446935/
  • The Sky is Falling Friday Part 4: Climate change to deplete some US water basins used for irrigation. (2017, July 14). Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://wattsupwiththat.com/2017/07/14/the-sky-is-falling-friday-part-3-climate change-todeplete-some-us-water-basins-used-for-irrigation/
  • Northon, K. (2017, January 18). NASA, NOAA Data Show 2016 Warmest Year on Record Globally. Retrieved October 16, 2017, from https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-noaadata-show-2016-warmest-year-on-record-globally
  • Cicerone, R. J., & Nurse, P., Sir. (2015). Climate Change Evidence & Causes. Climate Change. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/execoffice-other/climate change-full.pdf
  • Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=aJTBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA1142&dq=Intergovernmental%2BPanel%2Bon%2BClimate %2BChange%2C%2B2014.&ots=v1LAKK45BD&sig=B-6-7Q7GvHUSVV9d4gRdUU4_44#v=onepage&q=Intergovernmental%20Panel%20on%20Climate%20Change%2C%202014.&f=false
  • University of Southampton. (2014, December 1). Research confirms how global warming links to carbon emissions. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 15, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141201113036.htm
  • March 11, 2016 Amanda MacMillan - https://www.nrdc.org/stories/global-warming-101
  • Global Climate Change: Effects. (2017, August 03). Retrieves October 15, 2017, from https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/W. N. (2014). A Question of Balance. Retrieved October 17, 2017, from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XD_XBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=global%2Bwarming%2Beffects&ots=bnreAeK62&sig=h833C9g|7PRVMPWA38kRzwh_pfU#v=onepage&q=global%20warming%20effects&f=false
  • Bobea.Ortiz. (2014) Climate Change Impacts on US Agriculture: Accounting for Omitted Variables in the Bedon https://arefiles.ucdavis.edu//uploads/filer_public/2014/03/27/ortizbobea-climate-change-impacts.pdf