Energy Efficiency: Distributed Energy Resources

INTRODUCTION

With the depleting energy resources, enhancing energy security and energy-access, particularly in emerging economies is one of the major challenges that one has to deal with. In addition to managing the existing energy resources, generating power effectively and intelligently is an equally important agenda. Supplementing the establishment of large power plants from conventional energy sources, there is also a need to focus on distributed small scale generation of power particularly from renewable energy sources. Although Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) need additional infrastructure and investment to connect the all devices to the grid, these technologies obviate the need for an expensive transmission system and reduce transmission and distribution (T&D) losses. A better way to realizes the all emerging potential of distributed generation is to take a system approach which views generation and associated the all important loads as a subsystem or a ‗Micro-grid‘ [1]. During disturbances, the generation and correspondingloads can break away the distribution system to isolate the Micro-grid‘s load from the disturbance without harming the transmission grid‘s integrity. Economic, technology and environmental incentives are changing the face of electricity generation and transmission. Centralized generating facilities are giving way to smaller, more distributed generation partially thanks to the loss of traditional economies of scale.

Intelligent systems driven by microprocessors and computers need to be employed for online monitoring and control of modern large-scale power systems, in generation, transmission and distribution to overcome the complexities and drawbacks of the conventional instrumentation schemes. These intelligent systems form the idea of the smart grid. The smart grid (generation, transmission and distribution) by itself doesn\'t completely solve the matter of the existing demand-supply mismatch. The smart grid needs to be complemented with smart (programmable) appliances at the customer sites to efficiently re-distribute the demand to provide the benefits of lower costs for customers and operational efficiencies for suppliers. Smart Energy Management System need to integrate with Smart grid & Smart Appliances to research end to finish complex power system data which results in the reduce power consumption and increase smart grid reliability and efficiency. The main objective of this paper is to review the work already attempted by various research personnel and provide a consolidated information for management objectives in smart management system, such as improving energy efficiency, profiling demand, maximizing utility, reducing cost, and controlling emission we explore to W integrate home and building energy management systems

MAIN OBJECTIVE:

The main objective of this paper is to review the work already attempted by various research personnel and provide a consolidated information for management objectives in smart management system, such as improving energy efficiency, profiling demand, maximizing utility, reducing cost, and controlling emission we explore to integrate home and building energy management systems (HEMS, BEMS), solar PV technology, and energy storage with the microgrid. The power consumption data is accessible to the consumers through the Web portal and on handheld devices so that they can have track their all power usage by device, room, equipment, Plant or appliance, which helps better regulate power consumption. The key is to decide whether the demand is off-peak, midpeak or on-peak dynamically and relay this all have information to smart appliances of select customer groups based on available supply. Integration of home and building energy management systems (HEMS, BEMS), solar PV technology, and energy storage with the microgrid is also discussed in this paper.

SUMMARY

A detailed literature has reviews of nearly 100 odd papers from International and national journals clearly indicates that, it is worthwhile and high time to carry out research work on energy management of our present power system. Improvement in smart grid as a whole, the advancement in its constituent parts like smart meter, distributed generation, communication system (ICT) is essential. Various methods ranging from structural modification of grid and its components to the use of mathematical tools and advanced artificial intelligence based algorithms can used for improving the performance of smart grid. Various management objectives in smart management system, such as improving energy efficiency, profiling demand, maximizing utility, reducing cost, and controlling emission has been discussed. Proper management of various DG will be the key to success of future Smart Grid EMS. The authors believe that there is an ample opportunity to explore the integration of home and building energy management systems (HEMS, BEMS), solar PV technology, and energy storage with the microgrid.

The above literature clearly concludes that for improvement in smart grid as a whole, the advancement in its constituent parts like smart meter, distributed generation, communication system (ICT) is essential along with proper EMS. Various methods ranging from structural modification of grid and its components to the use of mathematical tools and advanced artificial intelligence based algorithms can be used for improving the performance of smart grid. Less cost and simpler design with minimum maintenance are the requirements of SG on which future research are often carried out.Thus using better and advanced method in each of the above mentioned fields will surely result in a highly secure and reliable smart grid which can be capable to satisfy future energy demand efficiently.