High-speed Tail (HSR) is a sort of rail transport that works altogether quicker than conventional rail activity, utilizing an incorporated system of specific rolling stock and special tracks. While there is no single standard that applies around the world, new lines more than 250 kilometers every hour (160 mph) and existing lines more than 200 kilometers every hour (120 mph) are broad to be deemed as HSR, with some stretching out the definition to incorporate lower speeds in regions for which these rates still represent huge improvements.
The principal framework started tasks in Japan in 1964 and was generally known as the bullet train. HSR typically works on standard measure tracks of successively welded rail on a grade-separated right-of-way that joins a huge turning radius in its plan. There are a lot of countries that have developed HSR as a connection of primary cities in their countries. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Morocco, Netherland, Portugal, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, America, Uzbekistan, China, Germany, Japan, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, and England.
Europe is the only country that does HSR cross international borders.
At the end of December 2016, China has 14000 kilometers of high-speed rail accounting for two-thirds of the world’s total. Railways were the principal type of quick ground transportation and have a successful imposing business model on long separation traveler movement until the improvement of the engine vehicle and airplanes in the early-mid twentieth century. Speed had dependably been an imperative factor for railways and they always attempted to accomplish higher speeds and lessen travel times.
Rail transportation at the end of the nineteenth century was a little slower than non-high speed trains today and numerous railways routinely worked generally quick express trains which speed around 100 km/h (62 mph). (High-Speed Rail, 2018) HSR has an important history in the 19th century. Since the birthplace of railroads in Europe amid the Industrial Revolution toward the start of the nineteenth century, the speed of travelers trains was a fundamental contention to contend with, not really with other transport modes (the rail route in itself changed the size of time for traveler travel) but also among the diverse organizations. The speed on rails additionally comprised proof of innovative improvement of the most developed nations around then. It’s anything but difficult to envision that the 50 km/h reached by the noteworthy ‘Rocket’ loco from George Stephenson represented a genuine high-speed thought for railroads in 1829 since the start. Soon, railroads achieved even more noteworthy rates: 100 km/h before 1850, 130 km/h in 1854, and even 200 km/h toward the start of the twentieth century. Regardless, these were simply speeding records. The most extreme speed in income activity was substantially more unobtrusive but also important, achieving 180 km/h as the highest speed and 135 km/h as the normal speed between two urban areas during the 1930s, with steam, electric, or diesel control. However, the appearance in front of an audience of other transport modes, airplanes (quicker) and private vehicles (offering point-to-point travels in protection), constrained traveler railroads to utilize their best contentions to contend. (High-Speed Rail History, n.d.) In October 1964, Japanese national railroads began the task of a completely brand new 515 km standard measure line (1435 mm, aside from traditional lines inherent in Japan, in meter check), the Tokaido Shinkansen, from Tokyo to Shin Osaka.
This line was worked to give the ability to the new transport framework vital for the stunningly quick development of the Japanese economy. The Tokaido Shinkansen was intended to work at 210 km/h (later expanded), with wide stacking measure, electric engine units fueled at 25 kV air conditioning, Automatic Train Control (ATC), Centralized Traffic Control (CTC), and other current enhancements. HSR was born. (High-Speed Rail History, n.d.) After the enormous accomplishment of the Shinkansen activity, specialized advancement in a few European nations, especially France, Germany, the UK, and Italy, grew new advances and developments meant to build up the basis for the ‘traveler railroad of the future. Despite an obscure future and regardless of whether a few other existing or new transport modes planned to contend with the traditional railroad idea, at last SNCF, the national French railway organization, began the activity of the primary high-speed line between Paris to Lyons on 27 September 1981, at the fastest speed of 260 km/h. The European HSR was born, yet as opposed to the Shinkansen idea, the new European HSR was completely compatible with existing railroads and this largely adapted the further advancement of the framework in the Old Continent. The TGV(Train à Grande Vitesse) was born then. (High-Speed Rail History, n.d.) Indeed, after the enormous accomplishment of the TGV, every European nation searched for the new age of aggressive long and medium separation traveler rail administrations, at times by building up its innovation and in others by importing. Joining the gathering of nations offering HSR benefits in Europe were Italy and Germany in 1988, Spain in 1992, Belgium in 1997, the United Kingdom in 2003, and the Netherlands in 2009. Meanwhile, some comparable cases showed up in different nations and areas, China in 2003, South Korea in 2004, Taiwan HSR Corporation in 2007, and Turkey in 2009. 1981-2009, HSR spreads worldwide. (High-Speed Rail History, n.d.) Nowadays, numerous nations have grown HSR to interface with important cities in their country, including Belgium, Finland, Germany, Italy, Morocco, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Sweden, Turkey, The United States, Austria, China, France, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom. Only one country that does cross international borders in Europe. (High-Speed Rail, 2018) Some countries were planning to build HSR. For example, Canada. Canada is the main G7 nation that does not have HSR. In the press and prominent talk, there have been two courses much of the time proposed as reasonable for an HSR passageway: Edmonton to Calgary via Red Deer, Windsor to Quebec City via London, Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal. There is also a conceivable global HSR interface between Montreal and Boston or New York City that is frequently examined by territorial pioneers, however, little advancement has been made. On another universal line between Vancouver and Seattle, work is in advancement to enhance the current Amtrak Cascades benefit, but it won’t achieve speeds regularly connected with fast rail. (High-Speed Rail in Canada, 2018) HSR hasn’t appeared in Canada even though there are lots of suggestions. Every country is different in its national conditions. Making HSR worldwide is depending on the population, land acquisition, and environment.
There are some technologies about how HSR builds and use, “Continuous welded rail is generally used to reduce track vibrations and misalignment. Almost all high-speed lines are electrically driven via overhead cables, have in-cab signaling, and use advanced switches using very low entry and frog angles. Road Rail Parallel Layout uses land beside highways for railway lines. Examples include Paris/Lyon and Köln–Frankfurt in which 15% and 70% of the track runs beside highways, respectively.”(High-Speed rail, 2018, p. 3) For example, a high-speed line on a viaduct to evade incline and street crossing, with a British Rail Class 373 from Eurostar in old attire crossing it. Some country builds high-speed line with tracks right on concrete tiles, such as Germany. (High-Speed Rail, 2018) “Slab track is also cast in temporary facilities. After project completion, the bridge beam and slab track casting facilities are dismantled and reinstalled at another site. The vacated land is systematically restored by relaying the site with the original topsoil before being handed over to its owners for agricultural use. Special bridges that cross large navigable rivers or that need to accommodate major topographic features like mountains are much more costly to construct, requiring more intensive design work and sophisticated construction techniques. Usually, such bridges represent a small percentage of the total number of bridges. Projects that include a larger proportion of special bridges such as the Xijiang and Sixianjiao bridges tend to have a high unit cost.”(How China builds high-speed rail, n.d. p1) It also impacts the economic and multiple competitive local sources for construction. For example, earthworks, bridges, tunnels, and rolling stock – that embraced automation in development and manufacturing. Moreover, expansive volumes and the capacity to amortize the capital investment in high-cost expense development hardware over various activities additionally diminished expenses. (How China builds high-speed rail, n.d.) HSR has an important role in environmental protection.
High-speed railway is the states according to their size, population distribution, industry distribution, economic and technological strength of concrete national condition, embarks from the actual needs of a passenger transportation tool, it has an obvious effect on energy conservation and environmental protection, can fully realize with electric traction operation, has a unique function charged with oil, in particular, it has the following advantages:
1. reduce land uses The infrastructure required for the HSR to transport the same number of passengers is only 25% of the area required for roads, compared with highways.
2. High use of new energy efficiency The design of the HSR station mostly uses green environmental protection materials. For example, the two stations of the Beijing-Tianjin intercity railway, Beijing south and Tianjin, have designed glass domes with super large areas. They also do light transmission treatment on all floors to make full use of natural light illumination. Beijing south railway station adopts the technology of thermoelectric cooling triple supply and sewage water source heat pump, which can realize the cascade utilization of energy. The annual power generation generated by this system can meet the 49% power load of the station house, and the annual operation cost can be saved by about 1 million.
3. replacing gas with electricity High-speed railways use electric traction to reduce the use of expensive gas and other liquid fuels, reducing the dependence on non-renewable energy sources. It improves the level of railway electrification, and due to high speed, high driving density, and higher frequency than an electric locomotive, the amount of an equal-length of high-speed railway locomotive uses is several times more than the ordinary railways, which greatly increases the proportion of electric energy in the whole railway energy use and optimizes the energy consumption structure of railways. (GaoTie, n.d.)
Compare to other transportations, ‘Rail, high speed or not, is one of the safest ways to get around. According to a National Safety Council review of 10 years of transportation fatalities, for every mile traveled, car drivers and passengers, are more than 10 times as likely to die in accidents as passenger rail riders.” ( Is High-Speed Rail Safe, 2013. p.1) “In 21 years — between 1990 and 2011 — the Bureau of Transportation Statistics shows that nearly 900,000 people died in highway crashes, while fewer than 15,000 died in train collisions.” (Yonah Freemark, 2013. p.1) High-speed rail is much safer than aircraft for several reasons. For example, the braking distance of a high-speed railway running at 350 speed is 4 km. In case of emergency, the HSR can brake rapidly within a few seconds, while the aircraft cannot brake at all, also only crash or crash to the ground at a speed of more than 200 km. The safety of HSR motors is several orders of magnitude higher than that of aircraft fuel engines. The HSR itself does not carry any fuel, and there is no risk of fire and explosion. If the plane has an accident in the plane stage, it will be a super bomb. also, aircraft engines have so far failed to avoid the risk of a bird strike. (YuChen, 2017. p.1) “Technology is, of course, a double-edged sword. Fire can cook our food but also burn us.” (Jason Silva, n.d. p.1) Compared with other traffic tools, although the high-speed railway has great advantages in environmental protection, it still has pollution to the environment that cannot be ignored.
The environmental pollution caused by high-speed railways mainly includes air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, vibration, and low-frequency sound as well as various kinds of pollution in the process of railway construction.
1. Noise pollution Noise sources of the high-speed railway can be roughly divided into the following categories: wheel-rail noise generated by high-speed trains; electric collector system noise generated by the friction between pantograph and catenary wires; aerodynamic noise of high-speed running trains; secondary radiation noise generated by vibration of basic buildings; and mechanical noise from power sources and equipment on board.
2. Sewage, waste gas, and solid waste pollution Sewage along the high-speed railway mainly come from the production and maintenance sites such as bullet train group, high-speed station, bullet train section (operation and maintenance center of bullet train), engineering section (comprehensive maintenance section) and power supply section. The main sewage includes oily sewage, domestic sewage, vehicle washing wastewater, and high-concentration fecal sewage. The solid waste along the line mainly comes from the garbage generated by trains, stations, and other railway offices and living places, and a small amount of industrial solid waste is generated by the maintenance operation of the railway section.
3. Erosion and pollution during the construction period, there are many environmental influencing factors, including surface disturbance, surface vegetation damage, destruction of the original topography and landform, and the occupation of basic farmland, as well as the impact on nature reserves, natural landscape, and cultural and historical sites. The influence of bridge and culvert construction on the water environment includes the influence on the water quality of the receiving water, the influence on the water resources protection area, and the influence on the aquatic aquaculture industry. The influence of construction machinery on the acoustic environment and environmental vibration includes residential areas, hospitals, schools, and offices; The influence of dust from vehicles and sand and stone yard construction on-air environment quality. (GaoTie, n.d.)
Accident never disappears no matter what kind of transportation people are using. On 23th, July 2011, two HSRs going on the Yongtaiwen railroad line crashed on a viaduct in the suburbia of Wenzhou, Zhejiang region. The two trains wrecked one another, and four autos tumbled off the viaduct. 40 passengers were killed, and no less than 192 were harmed, 12 of which were serious injuries. The impact was the primary lethal HSR accident in China, and is the third-deadliest HSR mishap ever, after the 1998 Eschede train fiasco in Germany and the 2013 Santiago de Compostela rail calamity in Spain. (Wenzhou Train Collision, 2018) “The advance of technology is based on making it fit in so that you don’t even notice it, so it’s part of everyday life.”（Bill Gates, n.d. p.1) HSR as transportation is also a part of the landscape of nature. It goes through the scenery of natural very fast, passengers can enjoy the beautiful landscape of nature while on the train. In the days of spring, people always hope to find the most beautiful footprints of spring with the growth of all things. The invention of HSR breaks the boundaries of regions to a certain extent, reduces the ‘time on the road’ for tourists, makes ‘travel on the go’ become a reality, and makes the tourism industry in the region better developed. HSR has a big influence on the environment and people, landscape, economy, ecology, tourism, and cultural industry. As useful transportation, it supported the development of fast economic and social development, it is conducive to building a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society, as well as promoting a new round of Renaissance of railway transportation in the world.