Impact of Novel Coronovirus on Environment

Categories: Air Pollution

Introduction

A case of unknown pneumonia in late 2019 December was reported in Wuhan, china. The clinical characteristic of this disease was very much similar to viral pneumonia. Analysis on case samples by Chinese Center For Disease Control and Communication (China CDC), officially declared that the pneumonia was caused by Novel Coronovirus and named it as Novel Coronavirus pneumonia (Huang C et al 200). Later On 7th January 2020 World Health Organisation (WHO) officially named it as COVID-19.Novel coronovirus belongs to a large family of viruses, family Coronoviridae and Subfamily Coronovirinae (Eckerle L et al 2014).

According to WHO , COVID-19 belongs to group 2 of β – coronavirus, which is similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronovirus (SARS-CoV) widespread of 2002-2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) epidemic in 2015.Despite both COVID-19 and SARS-CoV belongs to β – coronavirus sub group (Shereen M A et al 2020).

Initially cases of COVID-19 reported that it may be less severe than SARS and MERS, but later virus was transmitting rapidly from human to human , evidence suggested that Novel coronovirus is more a contagious disease than SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV ( Wang C et al 2020, Gao, R et al 2020).

Novel coronovirus is a respiratory disease (Esper,Frank et al 2005) , affects many people in different ways ,infected people will get mild to moderate symptoms, usually arise after 2-14 days and Common symptoms include fever, cough, sneezing, runny nose, score throat , exacerbated asthma , diarrhoea (Surveillances et al 2020). The National Institutes of Health (NIH) reported that young children’s, people above 60 years or older, pregnant women and people underlying disease conditions have a higher risk of getting severe disease and death.

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Respiratory infections usually transmit from person to person through droplets varying of different sizes, when the diameter of droplet size > 5 μm is called as respiratory droplets and < 5 μm is called as droplet nuclei (Leung N H et al 2020). According to WHO, transmission of COVID-19 is basically through the respiratory droplets and contacts ( Liu, J et al 2020 , Chan J et al 2019).

The novel coronvirus epidemic has an exponential growth characteristics, Till now, no specific vaccines and antiviral treatment is approved for COVID-19 (Li G and De Clercq et al 2020), according to WHO which will take atleast 18 months since from March 2020, hence Non –pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) at the public level is the only way of controlling during a severe pandemic. and there by impact on individual health can be reduced. (De Figueiredo et al 2020, Ferguson N et al 2020) According to world health organisation (WHO) and Johns Hopkins university (JHU) COVID 19 has effected more than 2.846,536 people and total deaths were 197,859 throught the world wide. Countries including USA, Spain, Italy, France, Germany ,UK, Chaina, has been exposed to this virus intensely (Cruz B S et al 2020). By April 25th, India reported total 24.530 COVID positive cases and 780 deaths, even though number of positive cases reported were less as compared to other countries, but taking into the account of population, India has 1.3 billion people (Singh R et al 2020). If in case, the Epidemic of Coronovirus with the speed of USA, Spain or Italy then it is very much difficult to handle the situation without having the specific vaccine ( Cruz B S et al 2020) . The main reason behind the increase in number of COVID-19 positive cases and maximum death in European countries like Italy and Spain is because of late response to the outbreak and delayed lockdown measures (Musinguzi G et al 200). It is reported that after lockdown in china number COVID positive cases were decreased (Lau H et al 2020). Our analysis reports the importance and advantages of lockdown to control the epidemic of Novel Coronovirus.

Social Distancing 

Due to lack of specific treatment and antiviral vaccine, the only way is to fight against the novel coronovirus is by maintaining the social distance, flattening the curve, Social distancing is a Non pharmaceutical Intervention, which is taken against the spread of the contagious diseases and preventing appearing from the new ones, by reducing the close contact between the individual and maintaining a physical distance (of at least 1m) ( Hensley L et al 2020). The reason behind the social distancing is to reduce the outbreak of an infectious disease. Epidemiologist quantify the intensity of outbreak of COVID-19 by using Ro number, unlike SARS pandemic in 2003, H1N1 influenza in 2009, and Ebola in 2014 (Koeing K L et al 2014). Ro indicates the reproduction number which describes an average number of patients get infected during the infectious period from a single infected person in a completely susceptible population. Ro is calculated by following formula (Dietz K et al 1993).

RO = p*c*D

Were , p = probability of transmission per exposure, C = number of contacts per unit time, D = duration of infectiousness.

From the knowledge of epidemiologist, if RO is above 1 infection will become epidemic, RO is equal to 1 infection will become endemic and if RO is less than 1 then the infection will disappear (Potterat J et al 1999). Earlier study by Tim Churches reported on march 3rd 2020 that the reproductive number of COVID-19 in United State range from 1.4 to 6.5 on an average of 2.5, this indicates , infection will become epidemic in the coming days. Researchers from Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Imperial College, London, suggested that epidemic of COVID-19 cases can be reduced upto 62% if quarantine and social distancing was strictly followed (Davey S et al 2020). Similarly, studies by (Prem K et al 2020, Adhikari SP et al 2020) reports, the advantage of social distancing in reducing the spread of COVID-19. Hence main aim of social distancing is to reduce the Reproduction or R value below the 1 (Ferguson N et al 2020). Influenza infection infected 50% of the population (Asian flu) in the year 1957-58, implementing lock down, social distance, containment measures, reduced in the infection rate by more than 90% is indentified (Mackellar L et al 2007). Hence following the same protocol of lockdown, social distance for COVID-19 infection reduces the exponential growth and epidemic of disease.

Saturation of Epidemic Curve

Epidemic curve also known as Epi curve or Epidemological curve, Epedimic curve is a statistical graph in epidemology which displays the onset of illness outbreak ( Wilson E B et al 1942). Epedimic curve help us to predict ,Illness magnitude Its time trend of disease outbreak Inference of illness spread pattern Time period of exposure Mode of transmission identification As per the report by CDC, Non pharmaceutical intervention including lockdown, Social distancing Hand sanitizing, quarantine, and cleaning surfaces can lower the transmission of cornovirus epidemic in the community (Surveillances V et al 2020). Strictly practicing the strong massive lock down rules in china the saturation or flattening epidemic curve of COVID-19 is observed . Hence lockdown measures are necessary for epidemic management. Probability of infected person contact with uninfected person can be reduced and which helps to suppress the community spread of illness ( Gourinchas P O et al 2020).

Lockdown

An emergence protocol, which prevents the individuals from staying a given area. The lockdown protocol usually allows essential supplies like pharmacies, hospitals, banks and grocery stops and shut down all non essential activities throughout the period. Around the world most of the countries including India, America, China, Italy, Spain, etc. are implementing the locdown protocol to control the spread of COVID-19 (Alvarez F E et al 2020). Even WHO recommends the strict lockdown protocol to fight against the COVId-19. Lock down and Health system Health care system has major role in controlling the epidemic of COVID- 19. Massive lockdown protocol benefits the national and global communities. In addition to that, burden and pressure on healthcare system gets reduced, which helps to serve the COVID-19 as well Non-COVID patients. If the transmission of COVID-19 is not curtailed or the lockdown breaks, the spread of virus cannot control easily, finally health care system become overwhelmed. We have seen such increasing scenario in many countries including Italy, spain, UK etc.(Musinguzi, G et al 2020) hence lockdown and non pharmaceutical intervention play a major role in building the health care system which finally helps to control the epidemic ofCOVID-19.

Air Pollution

To reduce the spread of novel corona virus, most of the countries across the globe went for lockdown. This action has put automobiles, trains, planes and major industrial activity on hold. Due to this unparalleled decrease in air pollution was noticed in most of the countries (Shrestha A M et al 2020). During lock down, According to Central Pollution Control Board of India air quality index was improved upto 90% in major cities of India including Delhi and Mumbai. Recent study reported that china has found a big relief in anthropogenic pollution emission which results in 25% reduction in carbon mission and 30% reduction in NO2 level during lockdown (Han Y Lam et al 2020). WHO reports more than 90% of the global population are living in the area were the quality of air is below the guideline level. Ambient air pollution kills nearly 7million people annually across the globe and majority of the deaths are in china and Indi . Increase in NO2 has linked to various diseases including respiratory diseases (Lambert, K. A et al 2017), cardiac diseases (Gan W Q et al 2012), diabetes (Shin S et al 2020), Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Abbey D E et al 1993), Hypertension (Shin S et al 2020), increased rate of hospitalisation (Mann J K et al 2002). The mortality rate of novel coronvirus is significantly higher with the patient who already had pre existing health condition, specifically those with cardiovascular, diabetes and respiratory disease, these disease are strongly connected with the air pollution (Isaifan R J et al 2020). Hence the quality of air and health indices improved after the complete lock down, which directly helps to fight against the coronovirus.

Water quality improvement

Quality of water has seen a significant improvement. since enforcement of the lockdown shuts the dumping of industrial waste. According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) out of 36 water monitoring points 27 had shown improvement in the water quality of river Ganga. Following parameters data were measured to assess the water quality of the river they are biochemical oxygen demand (< 2mg/ ltr), dissolved oxygen (>6mg / ltr ), coliform level ( 500/10 ml) and Ph ( 6.5 -8.5).

Life easier during lockdown

Strength of Health system : Working against COVID -19 victim is necessary , in addition to that health supporters are also continuing their work for Non COVID Patients who requires regular treatment especially for chemotherapy, dialysis patients. To minimize the overcrowd in hospitals, Heath Care Global has emphasized to monitor through Tele-medicine, video calls, 24*7 health emergency helpline, mobile medical transport units. Suspected COVID patients are quartine for 14 days, if the patients get COVID positive then the treatment is followed as per the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) protocols in COVID care centres, Fever clinics, Dedicated COVID Health Centre (DCHC), Dedicated COVID Hospital (DCH). Work from Home: To ensure the continuity of business, most of the IT and BPO company employes are continuing their work from home.

Online Classes: As lockdown continuous, online classes have surged in popularity most of the university and collages across the globe are continuing their classes to help the students. It is reported that till 17th April 2020 more than 2,23,930 online classes on various subjects have been conducted and these are attended by students in an average of 1.44,431 per day. In addition to that various online courses are conducted , and researchers are publishes more than 2.

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Impact of Novel Coronovirus on Environment. (2021, Oct 31). Retrieved from http://envrexperts.com/free-essays/essay-about-impact-novel-coronovirus-environment

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