The objective of this report is to:
- Know different techniques in management of exhaustion in petroleum industry.
- Know different techniques in management of emission in petroleum industry.
- Evaluation of management technique used accordance to Bahraini laws.
- Evaluate a case study where fraudulent is exist.
This report discuss different initiatives taken by Tatweer petroleum company which is one of the oil and gas industry in Bahrain in order to manage the exhaustion of untreated water which is extracted from crude oil and emissions management which is concentrate on different technique to reuse the associated gas instead of burn it. These initiatives such as implementation and commission of many associated gas compression stations, water treatment plants and incinerators at gas dehydration units is discussed in details in this report together with their impact on environment as well as the production and evaluate its compliance with Bahraini laws. On the other hand a discussion on fraudulent case is done and evaluate the scenario.
All oil and gas industries considered one of the higher producers of waste emissions and exhaustion, therefore, a clear procedures and management plans to these waste is placed by all companies in the sector of oil and gas production in order to protect the environment by completely complying with the rules and regulation in this sector. This report discuss in details a three initiatives implemented by Tatweer petroleum in order to protect the environment and follow local and international needs for the protection of the environment. A discussion on management of excessive associated gas in oil wells is detailed in this report. Also, the implementation of incinerators at plants where the natural gas get dehydrated to remove the moisture. On the other hand, this report discuss the implementation of water treatment plants for water reuse in different processes.
Case studies discussed
Tatweer petroleum implemented many initiatives in order to protect the environment has a significant impact on the environment and specifically the air quality to comply with Bahraini laws and regulations. Examples of these initiatives are:
- Implementation and commission of many associated gas compression stations
- Implementation and commission of many water treatment plants
- Implementation of incinerators which linked to the gas production at gas dehydration units 1.
Implementation and commission of many associated gas compression stations In the oil field where the crude oil is produced, there are mainly two kinds of oil wells, the first is pure oil well where this well produces only crude oil. The second type of well is the wells that produce oil and gas together. This gas called associated gas. Mainly this gas is sold to a gas refinery companies. When the Bahrain oil field expansion project takes place, many new oil wells have associated gas too. The capacity of the gas refinery companies is almost full. In such case, many oil producers use to burn the associated gas through flaring (figure 1) in order to recover more crude oil from the new wells without shutting those wells to maintain the oil production.
Figure 1: flaring of excessive associated gas The flaring has many consequences on the environment and negative impact on the air quality and may harm the organisms. Many countries forbidden the flaring without control or limiting the flaring activities to achieve the requirement of the governmental authorities. To overcome this issue, Tatweer has to maintain the oil production with no or minimum flaring to comply with the rules and regulations of Bahrain in this manner. Therefore, Tatweer, implemented and commissioned many gas compression stations (figure 2) to collect all the excessive associated gas in the field to compress it and inject it again to the oil wells in order to pressurize the oil reservoir to produce more oil from different production zones. In this case the flaring process will be deactivated as the production of oil will continue and the associated gas will be routed to the gas compression stations for injection purpose without flaring.
Figure 2: Gas compression station According to Bahraini laws, specifically, resolution 10 of 1999, resolution 2 of 2001 and resolution 3 of 2001 on the quality of air, Tatweer based on the implementation of above technology adhere to the requirement of those resolutions and completely comply with the law of Bahrain as the flaring activities is mitigated. Implementation and commission of many water treatment plants In the oil production field, the crude oil consist of a certain percentage of water, the water percentage depend on many factors such as the production zone, well nature and oil production method. The water to be separated prior to export the crude oil to refinery. The separated water still consist of hydrocarbons and cannot be emission. In such case some company discharge the untreated water to the sea (figure 3) which cause water pollution. In this matter, Tatweer built six water treatment plants (figure 4) in order to treat all water extracted from the produced crude oil. The treated water will be used in another process and not to be discharged to the environment under any circumstances.
Figure 3: Discharge of untreated water Tatweer by implementation and commission of the six water treatment plants, adhere to the laws of Bahrain in this matter as no untreated water ejected to the atmosphere. On the other hand the treated water is used in another processes such as water injection system to pressurize the oil reservoir for more oil recovery, also it used in steam injection plants for the same purpose. This means Tatweer save the resources of Kingdom of Bahrain by using the treated water extracted from the oil rather than using the water from the government water network.
Figure 4: Water treatment plant According to Bahraini laws, specifically, resolution 10 of 1999, resolution 2 of 2001 and resolution 3 of 2001 on the quality of water, Tatweer based on the implementation of above technology adhere to the requirement of those resolutions and completely comply with the law of Bahrain as the discharge of untreated water activities is eliminated. Implementation of incinerators which linked to the gas production at gas dehydration units In the gas production field, the natural gas consist of a certain percentage of water/moisture, the water/moisture percentage depend on many factors such as the production zone, well nature. The water/moisture to be separated prior to export the gas to refinery. The process of moisture removal called gas dehydration which is done in a gas dehydration unit (figure 5). The dehydration process is a close cycle process where a chemical called Glycol is circulated in the dehydrator. The interaction between glycol and the gas cause moisture to be absorbed by the glycol, hence the gas become dry and the glycol become wet. The glycol is routed to a boiler to heat up the wet glycol to approximately 200 degree Celsius.
Figure 5: Gas dehydration unit The water/moisture is evaporate at 100 degree Celsius while the glycol boiling point is 285 degree Celsius. Therefore the moisture is evaporated and the glycol become dry and again recirculated to the dehydrator. The released vapor consist of dissolved hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is highly toxic to the environment and organisms. Tatweer implement an incinerators (figure 6) in the new gas dehydration units and it is linked to the production. The incinerators used to burn the harmful gasses in the vapor under very high temperature which cause decomposition of those gasses and dramatically mitigate the hazards from the vapor. The incinerators are linked to the production, means when any error take place that cause malfunctioning of incinerators, the unit will be shutting down in order to prevent any release of toxic gasses to the environment.
Figure 6: Incinerator layout According to Bahraini laws, specifically, resolution 10 of 1999, resolution 2 of 2001 and resolution 3 of 2001 on the quality of air, Tatweer based on the implementation of incinerators adhere to the requirement of those resolutions and completely comply with the law of Bahrain as the release of toxic gas is completely under control.
Figure 7: Screen shot of Tatweer petroleum web site
Figure 8: Screen shot of Tatweer petroleum web site
Company XYZ, the main contracting company got into a formal contract with a sub contracting company ABC. The formal contract was signed between two parties. There was also a supplying company involved to deliver goods and services to the project. The supplying company was involved in the contract upon recommendation by the sub contracting company. One of the terms and requirement for the project was submission of certification documents for the products delivered to the work site. While the project was ongoing the supplying company submitted documents which were later found to be fraudulent. The case was taken to the court. What will be final verdict? Cite an appropriate Bahrain law applicable.
The final verdict will be as follow: The main contracting company XYZ will win the case as the documents were submitted found fraudulent. Any kind of fraudulent is unlawful and prohibited by Bahraini laws. Based on Article 91 (a) which state that a contract may be declared void on the grounds of fraudulent misrepresentation when the artifices are practiced by one of the parties, by his representative, his relatives, a contract mediator or for whom the contract was concluded in his favour.). Therefore, the main contracting company XYZ will win the case.
Also, on the given scenario, it is mentioned that one of the terms and project requirements is submission of certification documents for the products delivered to the work site by the supplying company. As the submitted documents found fraudulent, it is mean the supplying company behaved against the NSPE code of ethics Section III.2.b which state the following: (Engineers shall not complete, sign, or seal plans and/or specifications that are not of a design safe to the public health and welfare and in conformity with accepted engineering standards.)
As a conclusion, this report shows clearly how Tatweer petroleum company comply and adhere to the Bahraini laws through implementation of many technology in order to protect the environment from unlawful exhaustions and emissions. Also, it is proved that the implemented technology is highly efficient, controlled and monitored all the time in order to comply with the environmental related laws and regulations in the kingdom of Bahrain.
- The Council for Regulating the Practice of Engineering Professions. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.crpep.bh/
- Labour Market Regulatory Authority - Clients E-support Center. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://esupport.lmra.gov.bh/
- Ministry of labour. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mlsd.gov.bh/en/Labour-Services/Labour-Relation
- Tatweer Petroleum – Production operation and field development. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tatweerpetroleum.com/production-field-development/