Lawrence Kohlberg theorized three different levels of moral reasoning each one of these levels has two sub-stages. People are unable to advance to the next stage without going through the one before it. Each one of these stages substitutes the reasoning typical of the former stage. Level one is Pre-conventional morality most people that are in this level are nine years old or younger. Their moral compass is guided by the standards of adults and the costs of following or breaking their rules.
In the first stage of development, people judge morality directly from consequences.
In the second stage, the child begins to understand that there is not just one correct view that is passed down by the adults, they understand that people have separate viewpoints this is known as individualism and exchange. The second level is Conventional Morality, in this people are typically in their teens or are adults. They begin to internalize values that are passed down by authority figures.
Stage three the child behaves well, to be a good person they seek acceptance from others this is referred to as interpersonal relationships. The fourth stage is maintaining the social order; a person does this by becoming aware of the rules of society and practices these rules to avoid punishment.
The third level is Post-conventional morality from what I read only one-fifth of people are capable of this type of abstract thinking. Most people learn their morals from people around them making it harder for individuals to think ethically.
The fifth stage is a social contract and individual rights the person becomes aware that laws exist for the good of the greatest number of people but there are times when you need to work around said laws in the interest of certain people. Stage six is universal principles people that have reached this stage have their own moral compass that they constructed over time that may not follow the laws.
Carol Gilligan also made her own theory on moral development that would be more relevant to women because she believed that women were different from men. That women are more focused on their connections with people rather than driven by a code of justice. Gilligan states that there is no age for a woman to reach each stage and not all women will reach the post-conventional stage. Stage one is the Pre-conventional stage in this stage women are focused on individuality and survival. Her own personal needs come first. Stage two is the Conventional stage this is when a woman realizes that she needs to help others and finds that she gets a sense of accomplishment when she does this. The third stage is the post-conventional stage, in this woman realize that the ends no longer justify the means for meeting her needs. Be it helping herself or helping others. Explain Behavioral, Humanistic, Cognitive, Educational Organizational/Industrial and Physiological psychology in detail.
Behavioral psychology is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are gained through training. Behaviorists believed that any person can be trained to perform any task regardless of background, or personality traits. It only requires the right training.
Humanistic psychology is a viewpoint that highlights the study of the whole person. They believe that a person’s behavior is linked to his emotional state and self-image. Humanistic psychologists believe that humans are not exclusively the product of their environment. The humanistic psychologist studies human meanings, understandings, and experiences involved in growing, teaching, and learning. They highlight features that are shared by all human beings such as love, grief, caring, and self-worth.
Cognitive psychologists study how inner cognitive actions can change symbols of the external world, and on the interaction between genetics and environment in determining distinct cognitive growth and capabilities. Still, other cognitive psychologists may focus their studies on how the mind perceives, selects, recognizes, and verbally represents features of a stimulus. Among the many specific subjects examined by cognitive psychologists are language acquisition, visual and auditory perception, information storing and retrieval.
Educational psychology involves the study of how people learn, including topics such as the instructional process, individual differences in learning, and learning disabilities. This branch of psychology involves not just the learning process of early childhood and teens but consist of the social, emotional, and cognitive processes that are involved in education throughout the entire lifetime. The field of educational psychology includes several other fields, together with developmental psychology, behavioral psychology, and cognitive psychology.
Industrial-organizational psychology is the division of psychology that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. Often referred to as I-O psychology, this field focuses on increasing workplace efficiency and related issues such as the physical and mental well-being of employees. Industrial-organizational psychologists perform a wide variety of tasks, including studying worker attitudes and behavior, assessing companies, and conducting leadership training.
The goal of this field is to study and understand human behavior in the workplace. The organizational side of psychology is more focused on understanding how organizations affect individual behavior. Organizational structures, social norms, management styles, and role expectations are all factors that can influence how people behave within an organization.
Explain the concepts /theories of nature and nurture in psychology. How are the different, similar and connected?
Nature refers to genetic predispositions’ impact on human traits, and nurture describes the influence of learning and other influences from one’s environment. Nature is all about characteristics that are inherited from genes or from your parents. Nature contributes to the personality through genetics. Nurture is about those characteristics which develop from experiences and environment. Nature vs. Nurture is a debate about whether behavior, personality and human culture caused by nature or nurture. In this debate, nature is defined as the genetic and hormone-based behavior, while nurture is defined as the experience and environment.
Personality is an example of an inherited trait that has been studied in adopted children and twins. Randomly selected pairs of people are far less similar in personality than identical twins raised apart. Biological siblings are more alike in behavior than adoptive siblings. Each opinion suggests that personality is inherited to a certain extent. Adoption studies show that by adulthood the personalities of adopted siblings are no more alike than random pairs of strangers. This means that shared family effects on personality decrease by adulthood. As is the case with personality non-shared environmental effects are often found to out-weigh shared environmental effects. Environmental effects that are typically thought to be life-shaping may have less of an impact than non-shared effects.
Nature is hereditary skills, whereas nurture refers to personal skills. It completely depends upon the heredity where nurture does not depend upon the heredity. Nature includes the genes which are determined by physical factors and personality traits. On the other hand, nurture refers to your childhood or the way you have grown up. It includes the biological and family factors while the nurture includes the social and environmental factors. In nature, the behavior is the result of genetic, inherited structure but in nurture, the behavior is the result of learning from the outside peers and religion. Nature is also known as an inborn behavior whereas nurture means learned behavior.