Hematologic system in human is also known to be affected by TPHs. Incidences of nonlymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia are higher in individuals exposed to oil than unexposed individuals. In DWH oil spill victims, decreased blood parameters have been observed, such as white blood cells and platelet counts, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and urinary phenol levels (D’Andrea and Reddy, 2014). In contrast, mean hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly increased in people exposed to oil compared with the unexposed individuals.
Furthermore, in spill affected individuals, high levels of serum liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase, and alanine amino transferase were observed. After Prestige oil spill, elevated levels of two heavy metals (e.g. aluminum and nickel) were detected in the blood samples of exposed humans. Incidences of childhood leukemias were positively correlated with in the children living closer to oilfields in Ecuadorian Amazon (Hurtig and San Sebastian, 2004). Ninety-one cancer cases have been recognized in age group of 0-14 years, with significantly elevated levels in the youngest age group of 0-4 years, with a relative risk of leukemia ranging from 2.
56 to 3.48. The most toxicological VOCs of petroleum hydrocarbons e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and PAHs.
In these, benzene is a well-known cause of leukemia and other hematologic neoplasms. Nevertheless, studies conducted in US and China also revealed that there are high incidences of leukemia cases in oil-field workers (Yang and Zhang, 1991; Sathiakumar et al., 1995). The incidences of several kinds of leukemia (e.
g. acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia etc.) were significantly were higher in people living in oil fields and polluted areas that those in other areas (Yang and Zhang, 1991). In the renal system, many disorders are caused by the ingestion of gasoline, including elevated levels of serum creatinine, urinary protein, glucose, hemoglobin, and BUN. The other frequently observed symptoms are oliguria, tubular necrosis, interstitial edema, hematuria, and reduced creatinine clearance. In general, acute renal toxicity resolves with treatment.
Ingestion of petroleum hydrocarbons causes severe damage to the digestive tract such as esophagitis, gastritis, disruption of epithelium and mucositis of the oral cavity. Vapors of petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline can cause skin inflammation. Irritant contact dermatitis, degreasing, burns, redness and blisters are common during prolonged contact with liquid petroleum hydrocarbons. Vapors of petrocarbons induce eye irritation, which starts from a concentration of 200 ppm. Burning pain and transient corneal injury are possible when petroleum hydrocarbons splashed in the eyes. But chronic exposure to these compounds leads to sever damage to cornea, retina, and ciliary body.