This project explores how to optimise the multi-basin tidal lagoon under existing conditions. In light of the distinct advantages of the multi-basin tidal lagoon, this project is promising in terms of both technology and environment. However, it is known that the tidal power project including the multi-basin tidal lagoon scheme has relatively high capital costs. Therefore, this project will focus on how to optimise the multi-basin tidal lagoon keeping costs as low as possible.
Tidal power is a common form of energy used by humans.
Its use can be traced back to the period following the year 787, when tide mills could be found on the French, Spanish and British coasts. (Fan, Z., 2004) Due to technical problems, this technique is no longer particularly popular. However, many scientists believe in and have committed to revealing the advantages of tidal energy. This project will use a wide range of terms associated with multi-basin tidal lagoons.
First of all, there are three important elements in the tidal basin system that should be explained in order to understand the concept of tidal basin: low tide Delta and tidal inlet, hydrodynamic and all meteorological forces (Dastgheib, A et al., 2008). These elements interact to maintain and acquire a dynamic equilibrium. In general, natural phenomena and human intervention sometimes lead to hydrodynamic and meteorological changes which then affect the elements that compose the tidal basin system. (Dastgheib, A. et al., 2008). De Vriend et al.
(1993) also explained that in case of significant variations, the exchange of sediment occurs in the neighbouring coastal and tidal basin itself, due to an exchange of sand between those elements.
Secondly, this project will focus on the so-called multi-basin model, which represents an important way to generate tidal energy. Multiple basins are generally double-basin projects, which include an upper basin and a lower basin. Other information regarding series of basins will be presented in the "Literature review” chapter. Finally, lagoons are characterised by shallow water and are separated from the sea or another large body of water. (Baker, A. C., 1991) Lagoons can be divided into two categories: atoll ones and coastal ones. As Aronson (1993) observed, lagoons can be limited by islands and/or reefs; the most popular reefs are the coral ones, which are found below the sea level.
According to Boynton et al. (1996), another type of coastal lagoons is commonly known as a tilt along the coast which is in the form of a sea level rise linked to the land along the line of the ribs. Coastal lagoons are a combination of open sea inlets between barrier islands; natural lagoons are often affected by the size and amount of precipitation, water inflow and evaporation of fresh water (Boynton, W. R. et al, 1996). The next chapters will provide essential information which will help understand the core concepts related to tidal Lake Basin projects. Traditional energy sources such as oil, nuclear energy and coal can have a very negative impact on both the environment and human life, leading to ozone depletion and climate change, among the other problems. Unlike these traditional sources, not only can tidal power be used to generate electrical and thermal energy, it is also a renewable resource which is far more comprehensive than other types of energy. That is because tides do not need fuel and are totally free of charge (Fan, Z. 2004). In addition, the absolute advantage of tidal energy is its lack of pollution. In fact, it does not produce waste such as greenhouse gases and so on.
Moreover, Garrett and Cummins (2005) pointed out that the future of tidal energy can be compared to that of solar and wind energy, in terms of potential and advantages. Tidal energy is not dependent on weather or climate change, as it simply relies on the Moon's orbit, which is fully predictable. Finally, tidal energy facilities can also be used to protect the coastline from high storm surges (Garrett, C. and Cummins, P., 2005). The aforementioned factors are the main reasons why tides are worth studying. In addition, the tidal model is widely used in many countries such as France and Australia. For example, the first tidal plant was built in 1966 in France (average tidal range 8 meters). The factory has been working successfully to meet requirements equivalent to 300,000 people in a city (Fan, Z., 2004). Generally, tidal power can bring many benefits to humans and, being the tidal model perfectly feasible, more research should be conducted in this area.