India has only about 4 per cent of the world’s renewable water resources but is home to nearly 18 per cent of the world’s population. It receives an average annual precipitation of 4,000 billion cubic metres (BCM) which is the principle source of fresh water in the country. India has about 20 river basins. Due to increasing demand for domestic, industrial and agriculture uses, most river basins are water stressed and not properly encroached. Groundwater plays an important part in India’s economy.
It caters to about 85 per cent of rural demand, 50 per cent urban requirements and more than 60 per cent of our irrigation needs. Unregulated groundwater extraction has led to overuse in many parts of the country, causing the groundwater table to plummet, drying springs and aquifers. The current water scarcity and the future impact of projected climatic change underline the need for promoting water demand and supply management in India. Although water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface, only 4% is freshwater and only 0.
5% of this water is suitable for human consumption.
Tamil Nadu State Scenario
Tamil Nadu is the southern-most state of India. This state is facing severe water stress for several years. Due to the poor water resources coupled with changes in the hydrologic cycle, pollution of water etc., The ideal pathways to attain water security to Tamil Nadu are flood management and rainwater harvesting, wastewater management, offseason tillage, saving water in agriculture, desalination, enhancing irrigation efficiency, rejuvenation of water bodies and water sharing. In Tamil Nadu about 126 TMC of water is used per annum for domestic use at about 135 litres per capita per day.
In this water about 101 TMC is generated as wastewater and let into the water bodies and open space mostly without treatment. By treating and recycling the wastewater for non-domestic purposes like toilet flushing, cooling, washing, gardening, irrigation etc., about 100 TMC of fresh water can be conserved. By industrial effluent management, the state can conserve about 20% water.
Madurai city has a water supply scheme for 174 MLD (millions of liters per day), but due to improper monsoon and other factor, the corporation able to supply 105 MLD of water to the system. In that 87 MLD of water drawing Vaigai dam. In that 87 MLD of water drawing Vaigai dam. At present, the city supplies an average of 103 liters per capita by once in 4 days. The demand of water for Madurai city is 209 MLD, with available existing water resources. The city corporation supply only 105 MLD of water.
The above scenario’s clearly an indication for further depletion or shortage of water in the coming days. Hence, there is a need to effectively manage the available water resources for coping up the growth of population as well as the industrial requirement along with irrigation needs. The city is lacking in prevention of water at the time of rainfall seasons. Adequate water infrastructure like dams, reservoirs and artificial recharge structures is required to ensure the sustainability of water resources to overcome scarcity problem. In general, the Madurai district is generally suited for construction of various artificial recharge structures such as percolation ponds, check dams and sub-surface dykes.
The world is facing a crisis of ﬂooding, pollution and water scarcity problems due to rapid and uncontrolled urbanization. Globally, it is estimated that 884 million people lack access to safe water supplies. Based on this, several literatures help in achieving and generating more ideas for sustainable water resources management and some more author also done case studies about the conservation of water under the basis of sustained development.
Here the author discussed about water conservations and government policies act to ensure the availability of water. “Our country is facing a severe water problem, not because we don’t have adequate resources of water, but because of our inability to conserve and manage all the rainwater and available usable water resources in the environment. Here the author brought about by public awareness, education, identification of problems and dissemination of best practices and incentives for action, thereby facilitating conservation of resource and to follow the act generated by the government. The high rainfall experienced during the monsoon has seen flooding in parts of the city in India. The next priority is to allocate water for essential agricultural uses, particularly subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry, as well as ensuring maintenance of ecological flows.
Here the author discussed the ideas of conserving water. Optimal use of traditional methods (such as dams, canals, wells, springs, etc.) and use of modern methods (such as plant, the use of artificial wetlands, etc). Methods of water management in agriculture such as the use of pressurized irrigation, drip irrigation and planting crops according to priorities. Prevent evaporation and transpiration through traditional channels, can be used in the management of groundwater resources. All the people should believe and maintaining the balance of nature, not only as a tool that meets human needs looked at. Wastewater and agriculture, all the measures that should be in the area of environmental management and treatment activities in the water sector should be taken.
Effective collection and treatment of urban wastewater is a critical problem in a developing country like India. There is a need in achieving the concept of recycling the wastewater and to frame a suitable water management resources to a city. The case study taken by the author here is tiruchirappalli. This research paper highlights the present wastewater treatment and management aspects of the city. The suggestions could be made for utilising the treated wastewater for growing greens, vegetables and for agriculture. If quantum number of wastewaters is collected, then it can be diverted into nearby agricultural area by recycling and reuse to get better agricultural development.