The temperature of water is one of the most important characteristics that determines, to a considerable extent, the trends and tendencies of changes in the ground water .Increased water temperature decreases the solubility of dissolved oxygen and water temperature above 27°C are “unsuitable” for public use. In the present study, all measured sample its temperature present in permissive threshold valve. \n pH \n The pH value is an important factor in maintaining the carbonate and bicarbonate levels in water. The pH values are found to be within the permissible limit of WHO (6.5-8.5) in all the sampling stations for ground water samples. There are no abnormal changes in ground samples. \n The slight alkalinity may be due to the presence bicarbonate ions, which are produced by the free combination of co2 with water from carbonic acid, which affects the pH of the water. The carbonic acid dissociates partly to produce H+ and bicarbonate ions. \n The pH values increased slightly for ground water samples in all the sampling stations. The mild alkalinity indicates the presence of weak basic salts in the soil. The low pH does not cause any harmful effect.
Electrical conductivity is the ability of water to carry an electrical current. The importance of electrical conductivity is its measure of salinity, which greatly affect the taste and has a significant impact of the user acceptance of the water as potable. \n The higher the ionisable salts, the greater will be the electrical conductivity. High electrical conductivity affected the germination of crops and it may result in much reduced yield. The WHO permissible limit for electrical conductivity in water is 600 micro mho cm-¹. \n In the present study the electrical conductivity values are observed in the range from 613- 1362 micro mho cm-¹. It indicates that the presence of high amount of dissolved inorganic substances, ionic constituents and dissolved minerals in the water samples.
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
The values of total dissolved solids for all the ground water samples is ranged from 289-640 ppm. Total dissolved solids denote various types of minerals present in water in the dissolved form. Most of the ground water samples show higher values of total dissolved solids and are well above the permissible limit of WHO(500 ppm). It may be due to percolation of sewage and industrial effluents. The accumulation of organic and inorganic solids also contributes to high total dissolved solids. \n TURBIDITY \n Turbidity in water arises from the presence of very finely divided solids which are not filterable by routine methods. The existence of turbidity in water will affect its acceptability to consumers. There is a risk that pathogenic organisms could be shielded by the turbidity particles and hence escapes the action of the disinfectant. WHO Permissive limit for turbidity is 8NTU and its used to indicated that it is necessary to treat water from this sampling area before use. \n CHLORIDE \n The value of chloride for all the ground water samples is ranged from 0.00099-0.01 ppm. Excess chloride of greater than 250 ppm imparts a salty taste to water. Increase of chloride level in water is injurious to people who are suffering due to heart and kidney diseases. High concentration of chloride is considered to be an indicator of pollution by organic waste of animals and industrial origin.
The value of calcium for all the ground water samples is ranged from 15-32ppm. In the present study, the calcium values are found within the maximum permissible limit (200ppm).
The magnesium values are found to be in the range of 1-8 ppm. The magnesium values exceed the permissible limit of WHO (150 ppm) in most of the ground water samples.it indicated that the water is suitable for domestic uses.
The nitrate values are found to be in the range of 12-44 ppm. The Who permissible limit for nitrate in water is 45ppm. The nitrate in water is responsible for the growth of blue green algae. \n POTASSIUM \n The potassium values are in the range of 13-25ppm for the ground water samples. High concentration of potassium may be attributed to the contamination by sewage.
The sulphate values are recorded within the range of 7-15ppm. All the ground water samples are found to be within the permissible limit of WHO (250ppm).
The sodium values are found to be in the range 4-23ppm for the ground water samples. All the ground water samples are found to be within the permissible limit of WHO(200ppm). \n DISSOLVED OXYGEN \n It is one of the important parameter to water quality. All the ground water samples are found to be within the limit 1-3ppm.
The results reveal that the ground water in most of the area does meet the drinking water standards and is fit for drinking and domestic purposes. This should be attended and controlled at the earliest for the sake of people health, environmental safety, soil and water quality because once the ground water and soil are polluted, it is difficult to restore it to its initial quality.