A2. Reeve Vanneman and Thomas Pettigrew found in their study that non-white candidates had less support during campaign than white candidates if they believed oppression was the cause African Americans were becoming successful and motivated instead of African Americans believing their socio economic status was normal due to the privilege of white supremacy. Instead of becoming the animals African Americans were labeled as, they channeled the discrimination and frustration in a positive way by creating strength in numbers and pursuing “the wants”.
Individuals who shared the same resentment or oppressor generated the motivation and pursuit for social change.
A3. Progressive deprivation is modeled through James Chowning Davies’ J-curve, which depicts how capability and expectations of improvement go alongside one another. As soon as either capability or expectations starts to slow down or resist, revolutions or violence will spur to gain satisfaction. In other words, the patience and desperation of workers or citizens fighting for social change will cause a rebellion if higher positioned personnel promise to make a change but instead, account to other issues that only pertain and benefit the higher class.
B5. Social polarization is the idea that diversity in societies can further segregate within each other to form groups of similar backgrounds to express their grievances towards policy making, in which can result in more diversity. The ten point scale measured two factors, repression and conflict, and found that as one factor increased so did the other but after a certain point one factor will keep increasing and the other will start to decrease.
Ethnic dominance predicts conflict when a certain group has a slight advantage over another group on political issues. For example, unrealistically, a one-person vote difference made the unwanted and corrupt candidate to win presidency and now the other group of people against will experience the grievance. Gini coefficients and land ownership were used to find the chances the poor class will revolutionize for a social change and see how the rich class will react; either join the revolution, be a bystander, or take action to prevent an action towards a social change to happen.
B4. Natural resources are one of the many factors that affect economies with war. Administration exploits the workers to harvest the natural resources such as oil, gas, timber, etc. and keep all profit made from privatizing the mobilization. This causes competition and conflict on who gets access and profit of the natural resources; the workers, the administration, the UN? This isn’t new to humanity, either stealing or invading a country’s resources for wealth has always initiated war like conflict in human history.