To regulate the climate and shaping the land, water is the most important compound. It is one of the most important compounds that profoundly influence life. Initially, mankind used water for domestic purposes such a drinking, cooking, washing. However the present uses of water may be classified as domestic, public, commercial and industrial. Rapid industrialization and indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in producing crops are causing heavy and varied pollution in aquatic environment leading to deterioration of water condition and depletion of aquatic biota.
Due to use of polluted water, human suffers from water borne diseases. It is therefore necessary to check the water pollutants at regular interval of time. The water may consist of pollutants and toxic metals which are injurious to health.The following are general categories of drinking water pollutants and examples of each.
Physical contaminants primarily impact the physical appearance or other physical properties of water. Examples of physical contaminants are sediment or organic material suspended in the water of lakes, rivers and streams from soil erosion.
Chemical contaminants are elements or compounds. These contaminants may be naturally occurring or man-made. Examples of chemical contaminants include nitrogen, bleach, salts, pesticides, metals, toxins produced by bacteria, and human or animal drugs. Biological contaminants are organisms in water. They are also referred to as microbes or microbiological contaminants. Examples of biological or microbial contaminants include bacteria, viruses, protozoan, and parasites. Radiological contaminants are chemical elements with an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons resulting in unstable atoms that can emit ionizing radiation.
Examples of radiological contaminants include cesium, plutonium and uranium.
The condition of water usually described according to its physical, chemical and biological characteristics. Water samples are collected from different sources and the parameters that may be tested include temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, nitrates and phosphates. An assessment of the aquatic macro invertebrates can also provide an indication of water quality. The tested samples will be checked against the standards laid by the Indian standards for potable water as per BIS specifications (IS 10500-1991) or WHO standards for potable water condition. The quality of borehole water in different sources of Hyderabad city was tested with respect to BIS standards. Areas taken into consideration also include those which are industrial where there might be chances of pollution of borehole water. Samples from Balanagar, Beeramguda, BHEL, Jeedimetla, Kondapur, JNTUH & Begumpet and other different areas were collected for the test.
Each sample was tested for parameters such as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Chlorides & Fluorides and for few samples, hardness was also found. The testing of ground water condition in the given area and its suitability for human consumption is computed based on water quality index values. The data revealed that there were considerable variations in the examined sample from different sources with respect to their chemical characteristics. Water is an essential commodity required to maintain life, of all the words for water in Sanskrit, one is “Jeevanam” which means life. Water is an important biological factor that plays crucial role in determining the health of people. But almost, 70% of diseases in developing countries are caused by water due to its poor quality. According to survey done by Central Pollution Control Board, only 1.6% of the 90% water that is supplied to the towns and cities of India is treated.
Out of the 1.6% water which is treated by various municipal bodies and water plants, only half of it reaches the households with good quality as treated. It is obvious that water loses its quality at the distribution and supply networks. This happens because of buried water supply lines, microbial contamination of water in supply line, chemical contamination which leads to corrosion of lines, intrusion. Poor maintenance of overhead tanks and loft tanks also affects the quality. In addition to this, out of 0.63% of 97.5% global water is represented as ground water which has also been contaminated by various ways. Some of the factors that are affecting groundwater are chlorine, So, it becomes a challenging task for water supply management to check the quality at various stages of water distribution.
Microbial aspects: The greatest risk from microbes in water is associated with consumption of drinking-water that is contaminated with, waste landfills, human and animal excreta, although other sources and routes of exposure may also be significant. The of consuming the water from this source may have the risk of having Gastro intestinal illness, other deadly bacteria such as (such as Shigella, Escherichia coli, Vibrio and Salmonella), Viruses (such as Norwalk and rota viruses) And protozoans such as (Entamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) may be found in water. These microorganisms can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. In healthy adults, these illnesses are usually mild and do not last long. In infants and children, the elderly and persons with weakened immune systems, these illnesses can be more severe.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): A total dissolved solids (TDS) is the term used to describe the inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter present in solution in water. The principal constituents are usually calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium cations and carbonate, hydrogen carbonate, Chloride, sulphates, and nitrate anions. pH is an indicator of the acid or alkaline condition of water. The pH scale ranges from 0-14; 7 indicates neutral point, less than 7 indicates acidity and water tends to be corrosive, while water with a value greater than 7 indicates alkalinity. Electrical Conductivity (EC): Electrical conductivity (EC) of water is its ability to conduct an electric current. Salts or other chemicals that dissolve in water can break down into positively and negatively charged ions. These free ions in the water conduct electricity. EC indicated purity of water. The purer the water the lower the conductivity.
Chloride occurs naturally in ground. Chloride’s high corrosivity will also damage plumbing, appliances, and water heaters, causing toxic metals to leach into water. Fluorides: A compound of fluorine with another element or group, especially salt of the anion F−. The fluoride variation is due to many factors such as sources of water, the geological formation of the area, the amount of rain fall and the quantity of water lost by evaporation. The present study was undertaken to enumerate water condition with respect to pH, EC, Chlorides, TDS and Fluorides from the various places of Hyderabad city using water quality index (WQI) as an indicator of the environmental quality and to classify based on the Indian standards. The standard values of the above parameters are given below.