Research Related to Biosphere And Ecosystem

Categories: Biosphere


The natural environments hold within all living and non living things occurring naturally. Environment is a complex of many variables, which surrounds human as well as other living organisms. The natural environment consists of four systems viz. 1. Hydrosphere, 2. Lithosphere, 3. Atmosphere, 4. Biosphere. Hydrosphere includes all water bodies such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, reservoirs, seas and oceans etc. Environment includes water, air, land and other living things such as micro-organisms, plants and Animals.

Water is a transparent, colourless chemical compound and is considered as universal solvent because most of the solutes are dissolved in water.

Water can be separated into marine or salt water and fresh water. 97% of salt water found in seas and oceans. Just only 3% of fresh water exists on the Earth. Although the surface of our planet is nearly 71% water, only 3% of it is fresh water out of these 3% about 75% tied up in glaciers and polar icebergs, 24% in ground water and 1% is available in the form of fresh water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds etc.

suitable for human consumption by Dugan (1972).


An ecosystem is defined as community made up of living organisms and non-living things that is divided into both biotic and abiotic components. Ecosystems are classified into two major group viz. aquatic ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem. Aquatic ecosystem is the most diverse ecosystem, on the basis of water quality, aquatic ecosystem divided into two types such as fresh water ecosystem and marine water ecosystem. Fresh water ecosystem includes rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, reservoirs and wetlands water type. Marine water system includes seas and oceans that contain saline water.

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Fresh water ecosystem

When compared with total expanse to marine water and fresh water of the globe seem insignificantly. Fresh water ecosystems classified into two major classes such as lentic fresh water ecosystem and lotic fresh water ecosystem.

Lentic ecosystem – Standing fresh water habitats are called lentic ecosystem. They are covered with lakes, ponds and various types of wetlands. It may be to large size bodies, these system are more supportive to different organisms from surface to bottom level.

Lotic ecosystem – Running or flowing water habitats are called lotic ecosystem such as streams, rivers, and brook. Lotic ecosystems always flow of one direction as upward to downwards. Running path of water finally meets to seas or oceans water, generally occurrence of an organism in lotic ecosystems is less.

Fresh water ecosystems are one of the most common and stable habitats of biosphere and have their own physical, chemical and biological characteristics which are molded by local conditions and physiographic features by Goel (1997). Majority inland water dependently occurred in lakes. Lakes are generally called ‘Stock of fresh water’ is for essential to all living systems. Different types of lakes available on the Earth. On the basis of nature, origin and geographical area they are following types. (,,

Organic lakes – Organic lakes are formed by the action of flora and fauna. These lakes are small in size such as reservoir created by the damming of a river by the action of beavers. The basins in which organic lakes occur are associated with beaver dams, coral lakes or dams formed by vegetation.

Glacial lakes – These type lakes formed due to the action of glaciers flow down, the erosive action of the glaciers its depression in the bedrock bellow the glaciers and ice become depressed to ice melts. Such erosive actions of valley create cirque, ‘U’ shaped valley and the irregular surface of glaciated low land provides depressions for the development of lake. Glaciers are large bodies of ice that form on land as a result of the accumulation and compaction of snow, as glaciers slowly move under the influence of gravity, they erode the landscape, leaving deep basins and valleys. For e.g. Raindeer lake in Canada. It is abundant in high latitude areas in the Northern hemisphere.

Volcanic lakes – These lakes are usually formed in volcanic calderas when lava flows interfere the flow of river or stream. It is also formed due to the rate of precipitation is higher than the rate of loss of water through evaporation. During a volcanic explosion the top of the cone may be blown off leaving a natural hollow. This may be enlarged by subsidence into a caldera. In dormant or extinct volcanoes, rain falls straight into the caldera which has no superficial outlet. The lake formed in a caldera is the crater lake which is present within mount Mazama’s caldera in Oregon, USA. Malheur lake in Oregon that was formed by the damming a river by the action of lava.

Tectonic lakes – These lakes are formed due to earth movement during earth crust such as tilting, earthquake, faulting etc. A depression form when a weak section of the earth’s crust separates, resulting in an earthquake. This type lake is referred to as a graben and is the mode of origin of a large number of the spectacular relic lake in the world containing a vast number of native plant and animal’s species. Such lakes are Baikal in Siberia, in the United state, lake Tahoe on California.

Landslide lakes – Such lakes are formed due to volcanic eruption and earthquake. These lakes are also called debris dams or barrier lakes. Large quantities of materials that fall from the sides of steep valleys into the floors of stream valleys can dams that create new lake. Such landslides usually occur as results of abnormal meteorological acting on an unstable slope. Lakes that are formed by landslides are usually only temporary because they may be susceptible to erosion by the flow of the river or stream. If the dam is very large, the lake may become permanent. The Usoi dam located in Tajikistan is a landslide dam triggered by an earthquake.

Fluvial lakes – The flow of river water is not uniform, the flow of river always be persists numerous curved or bended and meanders course it is occur due to not uniform land surface which lead to formation of lager, wide spaces in or edges of river and formed fluvial type lake. Numbers of lakes are formed by the running water of rivers. Crater lake in Iowa, US, is an example of fluvial lake.

Solution lakes – Solution lake is created when water dissolves soluble rock, bedrock, precipitation and percolating water form hollow cavity. Such type lakes induced by percolating water in water soluble rocks like limestone, gypsum etc. Rock formations made of sodium chloride or calcium carbonate (Limestone), are most likely to be dissolved by acidic waters. Once the ground water has dissolved the rocks below the surface, the top of the land caves in, usually forming around shaped lake. Solution lake are common in Michigan, Kentucky and Florida.

Aeolian lakes – Lakes created by the action of wind, such type of lakes are formed in arid environment. Low level land among in the dunes in the desert areas, water gathers together and form Aeolian lake. Between the dunes chains formation of narrow land area in their formation of stagnant, smaller size and always alter type lakes. Aeolian lakes hoard water in rainy, winter seasons and are dried during summer season. Moses lake in Washington, US.

Shoreline lakes – Shoreline lakes created due to deposition of sediments by rivers, edge of seas or oceans that result water body separated from larger water body. Such lakes are formed along coastline. When estuaries are blocked or beach ridges grown by the action of sea currents or when the meeting of two spits dividing a larger lake result in a shoreline lakes.

Artificial lakes – It is also called ‘Man-made Lake’. These types of lake constructed on rivers and streams. It is constructed at downward direction of running flow to making across of wall and made smaller or larger lakes. These type lakes water useful to different kind of human, agricultures, industries and fish culture.

Meteorite lakes – They are formed in the depression made in land by the action of a meteor or asteroid crashing in the Earth surface. Over the years, precipitation accumulates in the natural depression crating a lake. The Lonar crater lake, a saline soda lake located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, is an example of a meteorite lake. A study of the sediments of the bottom of such lakes often valuable information about extra terrestrial objects.

When high amount of nutrients in water bodies such as phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia which tremendously increases phytoplankton’s growth and development of algal bloom. Algal blooms have a noxious effect on the living things in water, increasing the amount of decomposing organic matter. Due to this releasing bad smell from water system, such type of water impossible to use drinking, recreation, aquatic habitat and resulted fish death. On the basis of nutrient contents water bodies classify into three major lakes.

Oligotrophic lakes – An oligotrophic lake with less nutrient values, low primary productivity and these type lakes have low aquatic vegetation, algal and plankton’s production, often have resulted clear water. These types are well oxygenated mostly useful to fish culture, drinking purpose to human, animals and agriculture etc.

Mesotrophic lakes – Mesotrophic means medium amount of nutrients content such as nitrogen and phosphates present in water. Moderate level of planktons production and medium level submerged aquatic plants are present. Persisted an intermediate productivity depleted level of oxygen.

Eutrophic lakes – It is well nourished water body. Commonly it has contained high level nutrient contents due to this an increases biological productivity. Such type water bodies enhance fauna and flora. Usually these type lakes dominated to aquatic plants and algae. When algal vegetation increase it leads to form algal bloom and increasing demand of oxygen, often to have aerobes death e.g. Fish.

Water is one of the most important constituent on earth, ‘if there was no water on earth there would not be occur any life’. Water is essential to survive of plants and animals. The most important think clean water use for drinking, personal hygiene and other activity. The United Nations consider universal access to clean water a basic human right and an essential step towards improving living standards. UNICEF and WHO (2004) have estimated that 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved water supplies and 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation. The amount of fresh water on earth is limited and maintains the water quality is most important.

Safe drinking water is the bright right of all human mankind. The majority of the world’s population however, does not have access to safe drinking water, this is certainly true in most part of Africa and Asia. Even in relatively advanced countries such as India, safe drinking water is not readily available particularly in rural areas, 75% of all diseases in developing countries arises from polluted drinking water by TWAS (2002). The great majority of evident water related problems are created by microbial contamination like bacterial, viral, protozoan and other biological contamination. Nevertheless, an appreciable number of serious health concerns may occur as a result of the chemical contamination of drinking water reported WHO (2008.)

Uses of water

Fresh water is useful for different domestic purposes such as drinking, cooking, washing, personal hygiene and bathing. It is an also essential to aquatic organisms, irrigation to crops, plant growth, industrial process, hydropower generation, fisheries, recreation and navigation. Different types of environmental changes occur through naturally and living factors to lead contamination of water sources it’s refer to ‘Water pollution’.

Water pollution

Water pollution is one of the most serious problems in aquatic environment. World Health Organization WHO (2004) has defined water pollution as inclusion of any foreign materials either from natural or other sources into a water body, there by changing the natural qualities of water and making it unusable for its intended purpose. Changes occur in physical, chemical and biological properties of water, restricting or preventing its use in the various applications by Taha et al., (2004). Discharge of urban, industrial and agriculture wastes water have increased the quantum of these chemicals considerably altering physico-chemical characteristics of an aquatic ecosystem over the time, many countries have regulated the point sources of nutrients such as municipal and industrial discharges. Thus, the anthropogenic activities with sewage and fertilizers used in agriculture fields appear to be major causes of the eutrophication explained by Kudari et al., (2006).

Sources of water pollution

Domestic and municipal wastes

Domestic and municipal waste material and sewage water is the main source of water pollution. The sewage water contains more quantity of soaps, detergents, garbage, waste foods, human excreta and numbers of pathogenic micro-organisms enter in the water bodies and contamination of natural water.

Industrial effluents

Different industrial activity to produce large quantity of waste effluents, they are directly discharged into water. Major hazardous effluent producing industries are chemical forming, food processing, textile, liquor manufacturing unit, refining industries, pharmaceutical wastes, oil producing plants etc.

Agriculture wastes

Agriculture wastes are often to induce very serious problems of water pollution. Agriculture surface run-off contains different types of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, animal wastes, and poultry farm wastes in a water body. It increases nutrients enrichment in water bodies and resulting to form eutrophication. Agriculture run-off persists with growth nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. The added nutrients lead to excess growth of algae resulting in reduced light penetration and water clarity due to this increases primary productivity, aerobic bacteria, decline level of oxygen and possibility algal bloom formation, after eutrophication density, distribution of species can be alter concluded by Schmieder (1997).

Radioactive wastes

When nuclear tests carried out in under natural water bodies, radioactive element particles spread in water, such radioactive elements are strontium, uranium, radium, plutonium, thorium etc. they contaminate water. Nuclear power plants, mining, ores, nuclear weapon manufacturing units also contribute water pollution.

Thermal pollution

Nuclear power plants, electric power plants some chemical industries use abundant water as cooling agent. Released heated water let-off in normal water and increases normal water temperature due to adverse effect on aquatic systems.

Natural water available in the environment is not chemically pure water. While circulating in the environment water come in contact with atmosphere, rocks and soil. In this way many different compounds pass in to the water, organic as well as inorganic. Water is one of the most important and abundant ingredient of the ecosystem and profoundly influence life. Due to rapid industrialization, indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture it causes pollution which affects the entire biosphere, plants and organisms living in the water reservoirs but its effect is damaging to the natural biological communities. Water is a basic need of all living organism on the Earth. Most of the water on this planet is stored in ocean and ice caps, which is difficult to recover for our diverse needs. Most of our demand of water is fulfilled by rain water, which gets deposited on surface and ground water resources. More than 73% of the earth surface is covered by water to an average depth of 3,800 m. In India, several large reservoirs exist besides natural lakes and innumerable small tanks and ponds. Reservoirs are made by constructing dams across the rivers to serve a variety of purposes like industrial processes, irrigation, domestic use for drinking water supply and fish culture etc. The reservoir get polluted due to different activity such as recreation, generation of hydro-electricity, agriculture runoff, domestic wastes, animal wastes etc.


The word limnology is derived from the Greek word Lime – marsh, pond and Latin Limnaea – pertaining to a marsh. Limnology is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as ‘The study of the biological, chemical and physical features of lakes and other bodies of fresh water.’ Perhaps a more researcher definition published on limnology. Limnology is the study of the structural and functional interrelation of water as they are affected by their dynamic physical, chemical and environments denoted by Wetzel (2001). Limnology included all inland waters which may be lake, river, stream, ground water, reservoir, wetland water and brackish water also. Physico-chemical factors play an important role in the distribution of flora and fauna among them. Algae range from small, single celled prokaryotes to multi-cellular organisms, some with fairly complex and differentiated form. The algae have been an interesting group for investigation because of their varied nature and a world-wide distribution.

Francois-Alphonse Forel (1841-1912), a Swiss Scientist established the field of limnology with his studies of lake Geneva. Forel is considered the ‘Founder of limnology’. Forel worked as a professor of Medicine at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. But his real interested work on the lakes, his investigation of biology, chemistry, water circulation, sedimentation and most importantly their interactions, established the foundation of a new discipline ( Hutchinson (1937 & 1991) an Anglo-American zoologist known for his studies of fresh water lakes and considered as the father of American limnology. Limnology closely related to inland water and oceanography. Limnology covers the streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, seas, oceans etc. Limnology plays a major role in water used and aquatic habitat protection. Limnology depends upon the proper application and integration of certain facts, principles, and methods of chemistry, physics, geology, hydrography, meteorology and other solution of problems which are biological in nature it was mentioned by Welch (1952).

Limnological study revolves to primary productivity of water bodies, most of the submerged plants, free floating plants and phytoplankton present in water bodies. Algae is the main source primary producer, it is unicellular to multicellular vegetations. Limnology is the study of structural and functional interrelationship of organisms of water as they affected by their dynamic physical, chemical and biotic environments by Wetzel (1975). The stimuli of scientific interest and of the necessities of public health brought about the initiation of systematic surveys of water supplies and of water systems in general the Massachusetts State Board of Health taking, the lead in about 1887, subsequently similar work was under taken various municipal and government departments, all of which contributed directly and indirectly to the sum total limnology information regarded by Welch (1952).

As the environmental changes and global warming threat humankind now a days, safeness and availability of different sources of aquatic systems and food chain become more important. Phytoplankton one of the smallest and the most plentiful organisms lived in lakes. These organisms played a vital role in aquatic ecosystems. Besides taking place in photosynthesis, they form the food base for other organisms living in lakes, oceans, and streams. Both their absence and excessive growth might be harmful for the aquatic resources. There are several factors that can influence the growth and diversity of the algae. As a result it can be hypothesized that ‘Altitude of lakes will affect the diversity of the algae due to oxygen saturation changes’. Increase in growth rate and diversity of algae at high altitude lakes will imply that can be safe and productive water sources reported by Tahir and Tokatli (2014). The geochemical composition of water and sediments is largely governed by the physico-chemical characteristics of the depositional environment and associated natural biogeochemical processes such as diagenesis, adsorption from organic matter mentioned Solai et al., (2010). Chemical composition of water is a function of hydrogeochemical processes acting in a given environments, thus monitoring of water quality parameters provide important information for water management by Matthhieu et al., (2005).

The quality of water is affected by various factors like dilution during monsoon season, high evaporation rate during the summer season, lowered temperature in winter. Sporadic pollution loads from various anthropogenic activities, flow rate of water; hence there could be varied fluctuation in the quality of water at the same monitoring location leading to seasonal variations by MPCB (2014). As per Central pollution Control Board, the largest source of water pollution in India is release of untreated sewage from urban, industrial effluents and organic run-offs from agriculture field CPCB (2012). Fish is most important bio-product of fresh, marine and brackish water ecosystems contributing as an essential and beneficial food item to mankind since ancient time. India’s total potential for fish culture is about 3.6 million hectares of which fresh water ponds cover one million hectares. The Maharashtra is endowed with an area of about 1,79,930 ha under reservoir. The total area under ponds and tanks are estimated to be about 2.2 million hectares and the reservoirs are widely spreading through the length and breadth of the country.

Access to water may be restricted in several ways such as prohibitive charges, daily or seasonal fluctuation in availability or lack of supplies to remote areas, and many countries face problems of this sort. In most countries the principal risks to human health associated with the consumption of polluted water are microbiological in nature. ‘An estimated 80% of all diseases and over one third of deaths in developing countries are caused by the consumption of contaminated water and on average as much as one tenth of each person’s productive time is sacrified to water related diseases’. The risk of acquiring a waterborne infection increases with the level of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms mentioned WHO (1997).

Physico-chemical characters

‘Water quality is the suitability of water to sustain various uses’. Water contains different types of impurities such as dissolved, floating, suspended particles, phytoplankton’s microorganisms and also depends on climatic and geological condition which leads to water pollution. Hence physico-chemical parameters is most important test of water to determine water quality before it used different purposes such as drinking, domestic, agriculture and industries. Important physical and chemical parameters influencing the aquatic environment are temperature, rainfall, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide other are total suspended, dissolved solids, total alkalinity and nutrient levels, these parameters are determining factors for the survival of aquatic organisms described Chitmannat and Traichaiyaporn (2010).

The physico-chemical characteristics of pond water have direct impact on prevailing organisms as well as on human being using such water. Fresh waters are perhaps the most vulnerable habitats, and are most likely to be changed by the activities of man. This essential resource is increasingly source in many part of the world due to severe impairment of water quality. The increasing anthropogenic influence in recent years in and around aquatic systems and their catchments areas have contributed to a large extent to deterioration of water quality and declining of water bodies lead to their accelerated eutrophication by Bhatt and Negi (1985). Physico-chemical parameters are related to the biological productivity and determine water quality. Physical parameters influence the chemical nature of the water.

The Indian environmental researchers has recently described the condition of Indian fresh water resources and their management as a prominent environment problem with nutrition enrichment, acidification and domestic waste, sewage, agriculture and industrial effluents contamination by toxic substances and identified as major impact resulted Sachindanandamurthy and Yajuryudi (2006). Water quality provides current information about the concentration of various solutes at given place and time. Water quality parameters provide the basis for judging the suitability of water for its designated uses and to improve existing conditions. Pollution invariability alters water quality, in turn influencing biogeochemical cycles, diversity, biomass and overall trophodynamics. Any change in the physico-chemical environmental has direct influence on biotic communities due to the fact that different species of flora and fauna exhibit great variations in their responses to the alter environment by Watson and Jhon (2003).


Plankton refers to floating or drifting organism with limited power of locomotion observed by Kennish (1990). Planktonology the branch of limnology involves the study of diversity, biomass, spatial distribution in time and space and overall various biological aspects like role in primary and secondary productivity pollution status of an aquatic ecosystem of different plankton species. The term plankton mention to microscopic plants and animals mostly found in and around euphotic zone in aquatic ecosystem. Due to limited locomotion, plankton freely floats in epilimnion and drift with water currents. The planktons are further divided into phytoplankton that includes micro flora and zooplankton including faunal component of these microscopic organisms. Planktons are greatly in their size, biomass and distribution and collection of their representative samples possess practical difficulties. Oligotrophic ecosystems contain high diversity and low biomass, while nutrients rich eutrophic ecosystems have low diversity and biomass.


Phytoplankton is defined as the photosynthetic microorganisms, adapted to live partly or continuously in open water of the seas, lakes, ponds and rivers, where they contribute part or most of the organic carbon available to pelagic food webs resulted by Graham et al., (2000). Phytoplankton includes microscopic, unicellular, filamentous and colonial algae. Among biotic communities phytoplankton constitute the first stage in trophic level by convert light energy into chemical energy which make primary production in food web through photosynthesis.

The study of algae is called phycology or algology. Phycology is a Greek word, (Phycos – sea weed, logos – study of/discourse). F. E. Fritsch is known as ‘Father of Algology’ and his student M.O.P. Iyenger from Madras University is known as the ‘Father of Modern Algology of India’ and started is work on algae in 1920. Scientists have estimated the total number of algal species to over 50,000 in the world but only 30,000 species are identified and examined by Frac et al., (2010). Algae are diverse group, first autotrophic plant ranging from unicellular to multi cellular. Algae is a collective term for all those chlorophyll bearing organisms, algae are important members of the plant world and several of them are significant to man in many ways. According to Fritsch (1935) algae must include all holophytic organisms that fail to reach the higher level of differentiation characteristic of higher plants. Smith (1938) defined algae as simple plants with autotrophic mode of nutrition.

It never forms true roots, stems and leaves and it is called thallus. The thallus is non vascular and ubiquitous, that occur in almost all habitats, ranging from marine and fresh water to desert sands and from spring to snow. They are very small, single celled to complex multi cellular forms, such as the gaint Kelps of Estern Pacific Ocean that grow to more than 60 meter in the length and form dense marine forests. The habitats occupied by fresh water algae are divided into lotic (running) and lentic (stagnant) water types. The lotic water including river, stream, canal, water fall and rivulets while lentic water includes that ditches, puddles, pools, ponds, lakes, agriculture field and moist surface of soil, rock, stone, tree trunk, air, ice etc. observed by Lone (2014).

Indian fresh water lakes are facing tremendous ecological stress, due to raising pollution, mainly seasonal changes regulated plankton growth. Summer is the most suitable season for the growth of phytoplankton in fresh water lakes because of long duration of sunshine period, increased salinity, pH and autrotrophic activities were made Chaturvedi et al., (1999). In late summer and monsoon season, the production of phytoplankton reduced because of heavy rain fall, high turbidity, reduced salinity, temperature, pH, overcast low nutrient concentration along with consumption of phytoplankton by zooplankton and fishes etc. concluded by Saravanakumar et al., (2008).

Algae are frequently found in polluted and unpolluted water and due to this behavior they are generally considered useful to determine the quality of water. These are very suitable organisms for the determination of the impact of toxic substances in the aquatic environment because any effect on the lower level of the food chain will also have consequence on the higher level explained by Joubert (1980). Algae are photo autotrophic organisms with cosmopolitan distribution at different geographic latitudes covering entire biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere and its result of wide adaptive variation. Occurrence of algae is depending upon the quality of water. The classification of algae may be based upon size, habit and habitat, motility, pigment composition, reserve food, and reproduction. They belong to monera – prokaryotic unicellular, protista – eukaryotic unicellular, colonial forms and plantae – Eukaryotic multi cellular forms were reported by Fritsch (1935). Algae are a group of ubiquitous organisms which are present in diverse habitat such as aquatic, terrestrial, they grows in extreme condition including following habitat.

Plankton – Such type algae are free floating or free swimming in water.

Benthos – Algae attached on sediment or substratum.

Soil – Algae withstand in or on moist soil.

Epiphytic – Algae grown on plants or aquatic plants.

Epilithic – Certain algae found on stones and rocks.

Epipelic – Such type algae grown on sands.

Symbiotic – Algae association with dissimilar organisms, it is mutual adaptation.

Holophytic – Algae found in high percentage of salts.

Cryophyte – These algae are found on the mountain peaks covered with snow and impart attractive colours to the mountains.

Thermal – Some algae tolerate in very high temperature.

Epizoic – Occurrence of algae on shells of molluscs.

Endozoic – Algae found inside aquatic animals such as sponges.

The algae exhibit a great diversity in the organization of the plant body thallus. Different organizations are present in thallus, they are following types.

1. Unicellular thallus – The thalllus is made up of only one cell that refers to unicellular and they are two types.

A. Unicellular motile thallus – A single cell with flagella for locomotion, it may be spherical, oblong and pear shaped (Chlamydomonas).

B. Unicellular non-motile thallus – a single cell without flagella, they are spherical and elongated shape (Chlorella).

2. Multicellular thallus – The individual cells are grouped into aggregations to form colonies.

A. Motile colony thallus – colony possess flagella for locomotion (Volvax).

B. Non-motile colony thallus – Colonies are without flagella, colony with definite number of cells that often to coenobium (Pediastrum).

C. Amorphous or Palmelloid colony thallus – Non motile cells embedded in a mucilaginous matrix (Tetraspora).

D. Filamentous thallus – The arrangement of cells in a definite sequence to form branched and unbranched filament. 1. Branched filament – an aggregation of cells in a row to form branched like thallus (Cladophora). 2. Unbranched filament – cell arranged one above one and form filament without branches. (Spirogyra).

E. Pseudo branched thallus – Thallus is branched but an appearance due to close association of unbranched individual filaments (Scytonema).

F. Dendroid thallus – Algae vegetation as tree like (Ecballocystis).

G. Heterotrichous thallus – Thallus formation more than one type filaments. The plant body consist prostrate and erect systems. The prostrate system is attached to some substratum, and gives rise to numerous filaments. The erect system develops from the prostrate system (Fritschiella).

H. Siphonous thallus – Thallus is elongated but without septation, cytoplasm are multinucleated and formation of coenocytic filament (Vaucheria).

I. Parenchymatous thallus – The thallus organized and modification of the filament into leaf like or foliose and tubular structure (Punctaria).

Algae are attractive in colour, the colour of the algal thallus varies in different classes of algae is due to the presence of different pigments. Each pigment has its own colour, particular colour of thallus depends on predominant of one pigments. For example red and blue green algae have dominance of phycoerythrin and phycocyanin pigments respectively.

Uses of algae

Algae are primary producer to link in food chain – water contains an enormous variety of algae which constitute the fundamental food chains. Algae synthesized organic food stuffs and main oxygen producer in aquatic systems. Some algal species contain proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, lipids, minerals and niacin. It is use food for human and fish e.g. Porphyra, Ulva, Chlorella, Chondrus, Laminaria etc.

Algae used as fodder – The seaweeds like Ficus, Laminaria, Pelvita, Rhodymenia and Ascophyllum are used food for sheep and cattle. Such seaweeds contain high nutritional value with vitamin and mineral. Its greater value used fodder to animals.

Algae used as bio-fertilizer – Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria and Spirulina species of algae are chief agents for fixation atmospheric nitrogen and converted into nitrate and nitrite, it useful in rice field. Soil erosion reduced by certain filamentous algae, they are most important fact sterile soil converted into fertile form due to activity nitrogen fixation as process of reclamation of sterile soils.

Algae used in industries – The algae Laminaria, Eisenia are used in the industry to prepare iodine. Algin occurs generally throughout the brown algae such as Macrocystis, Fucus and Sargassum. Algin used in automobile polishes, paints, drugs, pharmaceuticals and printing of textiles. Dried and bleached red algae Gelidinum nudifrons, Gelidinum pusillum and Gracilaria species are used to produces agar powder. Agar power chiefly used in absorption of water, it is important unit in preparation of culture medium solidification for the growth of fungi and bacteria. It is also useful in water absorbing paper, shoe polish, photo graphic film, hand lotion, and preparation of shaving cream.

Algae used as sewage treatment plants – Various types of algae viz. Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Euglena and Euridina are mostly useful in sewage treatment plants, they provide oxygen for decomposition of sewage by bacteria.

Algae used as medicine – Certain types of algae extraction used as antibiotics, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral and antifungal. Eucheuma, Laminaria, Porphyra, Enteromorpha species used to treat hemorrhoids, goiter, asthma, coughing and bronchitis. Codium, Acetabularia and Endarachne used to treatment for urinary diseases and edema. Sargassum contain iodine and potassium, it treat on reduce fever and induces in urination.


Zooplanktons are diverse floating and drifting animals with limited power of locomotion, they are microscopic unicellular to multicellular zooplankton communities of fresh water. Zooplankton diversity is one of the most important ecological parameters in water quality assessment. In the last two decades much attention has been paid in tropical countries towards the study of biology, ecology and toxicology of zooplankton. Zooplanktons are one of the major primary consumer in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The biotic component of the aquatic ecosystem is strongly related to the diversity, abundance and seasonality of the zooplankton investigated by Jose and Sonalkumar (2012). There are four types of zooplankton groups such as Rotifer, Copepoda, Cladocera and Ostracoda. Zooplanktons transfer of energy from primary producer phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. The knowledge of zooplankton abundance species diversity and specific distribution is helpful in understanding the trophodynamics and trophic progression of water bodies measured by Verma and Munshi, (1987).

Need of study

Khadakpurna reservoir is the main source of water for drinking and irrigation purpose. Drastically ecological changes are occurring due to increasing population. For human own purposes tremendously alter all ecosystem mostly an aquatic ecosystem. For future, the care full management of water body needs more attention for maintaining the healthy life. Mostly infection spread through contaminated water, safe water essential for human being for different purposes. Most necessary to maintain healthy human life, to regularly monitoring physico-chemical and biological parameters, due to study of water quality known adverse impact or quality of water and providing information of management and conservation of water body. This reservoir governed large shallow catchment area, at shallow level to present more possibility of large amount of aquatic flora and fauna which alter water quality.

Regular monitoring of water bodies with required numbers of parameters, not only prevents parameters out break of diseases and occurrence of other hazards but also check the water from further deterioration determined by Kakati and Sharma (2003).

Khadakpurna reservoir

Khadakpurna reservoir is major irrigation project being constructed across river Khadakpurna, a tributary of river Godavari in the Godavari basin near Garkhed village, Deulgaon Raja tehsil in Buldana district, Maharashtra, India. The Khadakpurna river originates from Ajanta Platu, Kannad, Aurangabad district, Maharashtra. The project situated at 20 9′ 30′ N and 76 4′ 30′ E, only 60 km away from district place. The dam is about 2160 meters in length with a maximum height of 18.50 m, out of length 377 m is overflow section in the gorge of river and with catchment area of 5133.18 sq km. The catchment area of lines in the medium rain fall zone, average weighted annual rain fall 690.63 mm. The project is having 160.606 Million cubic meters (mcum) capacity of water storage, which includes 93.404 mcum live, and 67.202 mcum dead water stocks.

Reservoir water gross utilization planed an annually is 114.631 mcum, of which 74.993 mcum withdrawals by canals for irrigation, 7.872 mcum for drinking water supply and 31.766 mcum reservoir losses. Reservoir type is composite rolled filled earth dam with masonry central gates spillway. Levels of water project are viz. Maximum water level (MWL) is 523.796 mt, Full reservoir level (FRL) is 520.500 mt, Minimum draw down level (MDDL) is 518.180 mt and dead storage level is 516.405 mt. For the construction of reservoir required 2990 ha area at FRL, of which affected 14 villages and 14714 human populations. Additional to project also restricted 7.95 ha area for dam and 9.50 ha area for canal from forest land.

The ogee shaped spillway is provided with 19 radial gates, each of size 12 m 8 m to pass design flood of 18047 cum/s. The canal consist of 38 km long right bank canal (RBC) and 10 km long left bank canal (LBC). 14.70 km & 11.20 km long lift canal on LBC and RBC respectively. Lift irrigation scheme, culturable command area of 25900 ha would be catered by this project. The annual ultimate irrigation potential of 24864 ha, of which Chikhali (11696 ha), Deulgaon Raja (10812 ha) and Sindkhed Raja (2356 ha) of Buldana district benefiting 27, 38, 12 villages respectively. The whole command area has been declared as drought prone area. The project will also provide 4. 687 mcum water for domestic use to 34 villages and 3.10 mcum water for industrial use (

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Research Related to Biosphere And Ecosystem. (2022, Jul 14). Retrieved from

Research Related to Biosphere And Ecosystem
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