Ever since June 1973, the world has been devoted to raising awareness about environmental issues. Each year, a day is supported with all its activities, organized by the UNEP. Different themes are chosen each year to raise awareness about a certain environmental issue. (Masry, 2013) Due to the increased adverse effect on climate change, in 1992, policy makers decided to establish the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Along with it, in 1997, a protocol was signed in Japan called the Kyoto protocol. The Kyoto protocol, holding now 192 parties, operationalizes the UNFCCC by committing industrial countries, individually in correspondence with agreed targets, to gradually limit and reduce the GHG emissions by following measures and policies.
(What is the Kyoto Protocol?, n.d.) (Monica Alessi, Wytze van der Gaast, 2015)
Back in 2015, during the COP, 196 parties were involved but now they are only 192, as back in 2015, president Donald Trump, pulled the U.S out of the 2015 Paris agreement as, according to him, this agreement will degrade the U.
S economy. (Domonoske, 2017)
To sum it up, COP is a conference of the parties where agreements are reached to UNFCCC, following the targets set by the Kyoto Protocol, holding those 192 parties.
Climate Change is the characterizing issue of our time and we are at a defining minute from moving climate patterns that undermine food generation, to rising ocean levels that increment the chance of disastrous flooding, the impacts of climate change are in worldwide scope. Without extreme activity nowadays, adjusting to these impacts within the future will be more troublesome and expensive.
(Climate Change, 2019)
There is a claim that the main reason behind the climate change is the excessive emissions of greenhouse gases, which contributes in the ozone depletion, resulting in global warming and lastly, climate change. Greenhouse gasses are a natural phenomenon and fundamental to the survival of people and other living organisms, as these gases trapes some of the sun’s warmth and reflected back into space and making Soil livable. However, after more than a century and a half of industrialization, deforestation, and expansive scale farming, the amounts of greenhouse gasses within the climate have risen to reach record levels not seen in three million a long time. As populations, economies and guidelines of living develop, so does the total level of GHGs outflows. (Climate Change, 2019)
There is alarming prove that vital tipping focuses, driving to irreversible changes in major biological systems and the climate framework. Environments as differing as the Amazon rain forest and the Ice tundra, may be drawing closer limits of emotional alter through warming and drying and that can be seen clearly, nowadays. Mountain icy masses are in disturbing withdraw and the downstream impacts of diminished water supply within the driest months will cause plants to dry and die.
Emissions from power generation change by sort of fuel and energy sources, also by sort and productivity of electric power plants. The sum of CO2 created per kWh amid any period of time will change, concurring to the sources of power provided to the electric power network. Subsequently, electricity-related CO2 emissions and CO2 outflow factors will shift hourly, daily, monthly, and yearly. The U.S. Energy Data Organization (EIA) distributes carbon dioxide outflows estimates related to electricity, monthly and even on yearly basis. In 2018, power plants that burned coal, common gas, and petroleum fuels were the source of approximately 63% of add up to U.S electricity, which accounted for 99% of U.S electricity related carbon dioxide outflows. The other 1% of carbon dioxide outflows were from other powers and gasses inferred from fossil fuels and a few sorts of geothermal control plants. EIA are nowadays considering power generation from biomass, hydro, sun oriented, and wind, so that it be carbon impartial. (How much carbon dioxide is produced per kilowatthour of U.S. electricity generation?, 2020)
Climate alter includes not as it were rising normal temperatures but too extraordinary climate occasions, moving natural life populaces and environments, rising oceans, and an extend of other impacts. All of those changes are rising as people proceed to include heat-trapping nursery gasses to the air, changing the rhythms of climate that all living things have come to depend on.
Sunlight sparkles onto the Earth’s surface, where the vitality is ingested and after that transmit back into the environment as warm. Within the air, nursery gas particles trap a few of the warm, and the rest escapes into space. The more nursery gasses concentrate within the air, the warmer gets bolted up within the molecules.
Scientists have known approximately the greenhouse impact since 1824, when Joseph Fourier calculated that the Earth would be much cooler in the event that if it had no atmosphere. This common greenhouse impact is what keeps the Earth’s climate bearable. Without the greenhouse gases the Earth’s surface would be of approximately 60 degree Celsius. (Nunez, 2019)
Heat-related issues have ended up a worldwide concern due to severe occasions caused by climate Change. Adjustment to climate change has demonstrated critical cruel to mitigate such dangers, particularly in urban zones. The presence of vegetation is critical in urban spaces because it plays a part in enhancing the natural conditions by shading heat absorbing surfaces, giving evaporative cooling and altering wind designs. Due to the quick urban development, common surfaces and vegetation are replaced in a few cities by materials with characteristics such as: high warm conductivity, high warm assimilation, and heat storage capacity as well as reflectivity, that result in retaining sun oriented radiation in the day and releasing it at night as sensible warm. In this way, urban regions in cities ended up hotter than the encompassing farmland; a phenomenon known as Urban Warm Island Impact (UHIE) UHIE alludes to a climatic marvel communicated when urban ranges have higher discussed temperature than their rural surroundings due to the anthropogenic adjustments of land surfaces. In any case, due to the urban development, no distinct borderlines exist between urban and provincial areas, thus UHIE can be depicted in terms of the contrast in temperature between the central parts of the city and its surrounding regions. (Mohsen Aboulnaga, Mona Mostafa, 2019)
Egypt’s expansive population makes the nation greatly helpless towards climate alter. Besides, its thickly populated Nile delta is genuinely debilitated by ocean level rise. Climate change will moreover have its effect on citizens well-being, and studies have been embraced in an attempt to analyze conceivable adjustment measures. Studies in need segments have been embraced as portion of the method of creating the national activity plan. The studies have demonstrated that the following zones are the foremost vulnerable, in arrange of seriousness and certainty of results. These agriculture, coastal zones, aqua-culture and fisheries, water assets, human environment and settlements, and human wellbeing. Egypt is a one of a kind nation with regard to its water assets.
More than 95% of the water budget of Egypt is generated exterior than its region. In spite of the fact that we are unable to anticipate the effect of climate change on the Nile, there are signs that the impacts will be critical. Any diminish within the add up to supply of water, coupled with the anticipated increase in utilization due to the tall population growth rates will have extreme impacts. Water administration is hence one of the foremost vital adjustment activities. Adjustment of supply incorporates measures to progress rain collecting strategies, increment deliberation of ground water, reuse water, desalinate water, make strides its transportation and rationalize its utilization. In the meantime, adjustment of request requires minimizing the need for water and optimizing the financial return of its unit volume. (Egypt, n.d.)
In mega cities such as Cairo, Egypt, the size of UHIE extended from 3.11 °C to 5.7 °C. In summer 2012, land surface temperature (LST) changed from 27 °C to 61 °C. The UHI escalated list in Cairo has five dominant levels, with slightest concentrated in vegetated areas/water bodies, while most elevated are in scattered uncovered regions and industrial zones. Hence, the over perceptions make it a necessity to create implies to decide the hot spots in Cairo Governorate, to prioritize and propose procedures for high temperatures relief. In expansion, the consider proposes UGC as a solution for UHIE issue. In expansion, the propose of UGC as a strategy to diminish UHIE.
In Egypt, urban areas have extended on the account of green regions. According to universal benchmarks, regions of green spaces should run from 20 m2 to 40 m2 per individual in developed countries, whereas it ought to be 12 m2 –18 m2 per individual in developing nations. In any case, most optimistic studies state that the green space per individual in Cairo does not surpass 2.0 m2. Such zone is considered exceptionally when compared to worldwide standards, where more than half of Cairo’s population has, as it were 0.5 m2 per individual. Moreover, about million individuals in Cairo have green per capital ratio less than 0.1 m2 per individual since green ranges are not distributed in spatial equity in Cairo city. UGC alludes to the utilize of methodologies such as: green open spaces, trees, green rooftops, and vertical dividers.
The presence of green scope in a city can be evaluated by the normalized contrast vegetation record, which is a graphical marker utilized to dissect pictures to determine whether in case the chosen area has well maintained green vegetation or not. It is important to select the UGC that fits the place it will be implemented in. In cities around the globe, UGC in urban areas can take numerous shapes separated from routine green urban spaces, such as vertical cultivating, green dividers, and green walls. It is important to understand how to find components of the UGC in places that would maximize their surfaces’ cooling benefits. (Mohsen Aboulnaga, Mona Mostafa, 2019).
A Green change approach ought to be seen at the meanwhile, as a key reaction to Egypt’s needs nowadays. In an ever more requesting worldwide financial field, and within the period of worldwide climate alter. Egypt still has the opportunity to be a territorial and even worldwide leader within the race to make effective, competitive, green economies. In truth, if it does not select this way future, prospects for the nation will be a troublesome to put into hopeful terms. These are a few of the results Egypt will confront in the event that it proceeds down a conventional development street without joining a Green Transformation; Loss of energy independence, Certainty of conflict over water. Vulnerability towards climate change and danger to some of the important economies such as tourism. ( Helmy Abouleish, Matthias Keitel, Philipp Maximillian Boes , n.d.)
In order to mitigate the adverse effect of the humanity on the environment and the planet, the world is now shifting to smart technologies on different scales whether on buildings or on cities scale. Smart buildings do not only meet the human basic needs which is food and shelter, they meet them in a smarter and efficient way by relying on different systems whether for lighting, heating, etc… each working independently, resulting in a significant reduction in energy consumption and costs, while on the other hand, an increase in safety measures, productivity level and overall quality of life for both building residents or workers.
Smart buildings also play a vital role reducing the carbon footprint in cities, but in order to make an impact, these smart buildings shouldn’t be distributed in isolation one from another. Turning an existing building to become a smart one or even designing a new smart building, these two cases require that the conducted smart technologies are compatible with supporting systems in the city. As smart cities different systems from mobility, power, water and energy are designed to serve these buildings. (Chan, n.d.)
Following the Paris Agreements requirements, a commitment was developed; the Net Zero Carbon Building Commitment. The Commitment aims that contributed companies, cities and regions reach net zero emissions by 2030, and that by 2050, all buildings become net zero carbon buildings. This aim would help limiting the GW below 2 degrees. (The Net Zero Carbon Buildings Commitment, n.d.).
With more than 60 countries contributing in reaching carbon neutrality by 2050, it is important to demonstrate what is carbon neutrality or what is a net zero carbon building. Net zero carbon buildings are extremely energy efficient as they produce 100% of energy needs whether on-site or off-site from renewable energy sources. (What is Net Zero?, n.d.)
The renewable energy sources are various; solar, wind, hydropower, biomass and geothermal. These sources enormously contributed in electricity generation; back in 2016, generated electricity from renewable sources contributed with 30 % of the total gross electricity consumption of the EU. (30% of electricity generated from renewable sources, 2018).
On a bigger scale, reaching net-zero emissions by mid-century (2050) was the aim of the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit. Net-zero emissions will only be obtained by balancing any humanity-caused GHGs emissions by removing these gases from the atmosphere (carbon removal). This will be achieved when buildings and generally cities become zero carbon emitters, all emissions from vehicles and factories have to be reduced to nearly zero and the remaining amount of GHGs by restoring forests and allowing the nature to breathe. ( Kelly Levin, Chantal Davis, 2019). The process of carbon removal and hoe to reach net zero emissions is.
A few cities are dealing with the emergency of overpopulation, causing a shortage of assets. Social and economic instability among citizens makes issues in a community. As technology develops, the concept of Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things can be utilized into arranging Smart cities which can steadily handle a few crucial issues; climate change, global warming and UHIE effect.
Smart cities are outlined for ideal utilization of space and assets alongside with an effective and ideal dispersion of benefits. Moreover, it aims at expanding network at different levels among citizens, as well as between the organization and population. Public spaces such as schools, streets, and clinics are progressed. The system can handle a few redundancies of the display system and consume time and cash. As technology is quickly progressing, one can recognize that one should create their ways of life appropriately to adjust to present ay requests. (Bureau, 2019)
An array of different researches indicated that within the following 5 to 7 years, the smart city will witness a huge change and the market is anticipated to reach a valuation of over $400 billion. It is additionally likely that by 2020, there will be over 600 smart cities on the planet and would play a vital part in creating a reasonable share of the world’s GDP. The thought of a smart city revolves around using already accessible resources more proficiently to meet the developing demand for space.
A smart city joins the touch of innovation to supply extra perceivability and access to available services within the city. Underneath are five key innovations that any smart city should have to empower effective and economical living.
Firstly, smart energy; a smart city ought to cater smart energy to its buildings. To make maintainable energy utilization, a smart city should intensely depend on renewable energy sources, which over all comprises of sun powered control to create electricity that will act as an essential source of energy in a smart city, because it leads to less burning of fossil fills, which brings down the contamination levels. Fitting in solar control systems in both private and commercial buildings can take off an exceedingly positive effect on the carbon footprint.
Secondly, smart transportation; the conventional transportation in numerous parts of the world is perplexed with clog, jams, and wastefulness. However, a smart city avoids all of that, by supporting a transportation system, which includes electric cars, smart activity lights, and indeed smart parking. By executing a smart system for parking, the efficiency of the population increments, as they do not have to be compelled to wander in look of parking lots ending with losing precious time.