Submitted In The Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements For The Award Of The Degree

Naxal term came from the village of West Bengal- “Naxalbari’. From where the movement started. Naxals are far left radical communists, They support Maoist’s ideology and political sentiments. Communists are those who don’t believe in India or State or the country. Naxal as an ideology originated from the split of communist party of India(Marxists) in 1967. This led to the formation of the communist party of India(Marxists and leninist). In the beginning the centre of the movement was West Bengal.

Later, it got spread in less developed areas of rural eastern as well as southern India, such as Chattishgarh, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh by illegal organization such as the communist party of India Maoist. From last 10 years, naxal movement emerged mostly from remote and displaced tribal’s and native who are fighting against major Indian cooperative and local officials who the villagers think are corrupt.

The naxal led organizations have been declared as a terrorist organization under the provision of unlawful Activities(prevention) Act of India (1967).

The common terms used to refer various militants Communist groups are Naxal, Naxalite and Naksalvadi. They work under the label of different organizations envelopes. In eastern states of the country like Chattishgarh, West Bengal , Jharkhand and Odisha, they are known, or they call themselves as Maoist. Wheras in southern part like Andhra Pradesh they are known under other titles. Leaders of the movement were seeking help from China, and also having their hideout places in China. However, the government of India had made provisions and law to rehabilitate the affected population.

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As the problem lies on the grass root level.

Current stats of naxalaite movements: In current era the Maoist movement have spread in nine states of Central and Eastern India. Maoist think that by doing violence and raging a war against their own country they are actually protecting the rights of the marginalized, the poor, dalits, tribes, and the landless. Chattishgarh, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar are severely affected states whereas Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Assam witness marginal presence. The Maoist want a radical reconstruction of political, economical and social order, they call for a revolution for the same. They believe in violence and perceive the thought that only with violence marginalized communities can win respect for their rights. Many states government are fighting the challenge of Maoist by providing protection to local and students, by carrying out security operations to defeat the communists and Maoist movements and restoring law and order in the state.

The Central government parliamentary forces give support to the local police in these states. States and centre led joint operation to fight Maoist. Because of the failure, lose and ineffective response of the state, the central government started to coordinate security operations since 2009. The worst case of this can be seen in Chattishgarh where the problem is deeply rooted and to fight out it state has rule with iron fist. States established a social order in which anyone demanding human rights of citizens are to be deemed as suspect, and a Maoist. The problem is being faced by the civil society activist working in Maoist affected areas, they are finding themselves under assault from both sides. The Maoist say and claims that they are fighting for the poor and the marginalized, and demand loyalty and shelter from villagers, whereas government forces seek public support in protecting some villagers and poor localities put them on risk from the Maoist and government security forces alike.

Ex Indian prime minister Mr. Manmohan Singh has described Maoist movements as “Biggest internal security challenge”. According to the home ministry 300 people have died in these left radical movements since 2003. The less development in the eastern part of the country and less attention, they feel excluded and alienated. To make the situation worse the local powerful people exploits and harasses and even torture the tribal population. Dalits and adivasis are the support base of Naxalites. Dalits and adivasis make up to one fourth of the total population, most of them live in rural India. They have manifold cause to support violent movements. These groups are vulnerable, they have low degree of employment, forest policies with strict restrictions in their livelihoods, cultural exploitation, different ways they are being exploited, social atrocities, displacement of deficient rehabilitation, weak access to health services, deprived from power, political marginalization and suppression of protest through men power.

The most affected states from Maoist have a most number of people facing and fighting huge suppression, especially among Dalits and tribes. Moreover these states witnesses high crime ratio against the neglected groups as well as displacement due to international projects of multi national companies. From the total displaced population due to different economical projects, 80% are tribes that were not considered and regarded y state service and governmental projects. Government tried to influence and access power and authority in the backward areas of the habitants by state for instance forest department which resulted in the destruction of their traditional and cultural customs.

According to a theory, Chattishgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh are witnessing the problem of naxalism very much. And these states are also rich in natural resources. In these area natural resources can be a reason for promoting Naxalites monuments. It can be doubtfully considered as the main reason. I wonder if natural resources can be considered as the major reason for the Naxalite movements. For this we can ask questions like why there is no Naxalite problem in Haryana why in Jharkhand? Why not in Tamil naadu why in Andhra Pradesh?

Can we measure the growth of Naxalite problem in respect to natural resources. Natural resources like mountains, forests, reservoirs, rivers and mineral resources like coal, bauxite, mica, copper, etc. The state has final say on natural resources and Arbiter and distributor while the citizens or individuals have a little say on natural resources. Individuals may have exploited the state for their own benefits, but the main problem is with the failure of governance, but not with citizens. The reason for growth of Naxalite movement is slow implementation of land reforms. Landlords play the game by delaying the land implementation in the court. In the end land reforms fails as these landlords influence bureaucrats and politicians to make land reforms slow.

Second reason for naxalism can be the structure in these societies. Anywhere in the country in where naxal problem exists there is a poor section of societies, with no resources to uplift their social status. The poor includes people of different castes not from a particular caste. They support the naxalism because of the poor facilities and exclusion by government. Poverty limits the reach of the younger generation to educate themselves. They fall in the same trap of naxalism and this continues generation to generations. Making the situation worse and dangerous. The dream of those tribal youth lie early because of poor infrastructure, unavailability of good education and lack of attention by government. That’s why the tribal youth can’t compete with the urban youth. That make them frustrated and they join naxalism to rebel against the oppressive and ignoring government.

Hence the rural youth fight a loosing battle against that of urban. They too aspire for the same facilities as of urban. This produces a sense of aggression and they rebel against the system by joining radical leftist groups. Another aiding element in the growth of naxalism is the failure of government in reaching these areas and bringing up some constructive work. In These areas there exists no concept like governance it is poor and worst even in some part it not existent. The polices made for the welfare of poor take a long time to reach and even longer to implement. And if implemented it goes to the naves not to the needy. Bad governance is a big problem as they are failed in implementing right policy on right time and hitting right section of society that needs the policy . State failed in implementing policies effectively and economic development became a reason behind the rise of naxalism.

Political interference also plays major role in ineffective implementation of government policies. Leaders delays the project for opponent parties this helps naxalism to seek sympathy from local population. Naxalite collect fund and money from local people and government officials to letting them work in their controlled areas. This fund is then use for buying weapons and recruiting people in the organization. Since Naxalite offer monthly salary and uniform they have become popular in unemployed youth. Unemployed section is attracted towards naxalism. Naxalism is not all about the problem arise due to sharing of natural resources it has various factors in it.

The other dimensions are closely linked such as political, social, and economical. Firstly, the Economic situation which has been exploited by extreme left ideology. On one hand India is experiencing fast economic growth, foreign investment, business environment and all these things need land resources and minerals. The development is uneven in different part of the country. This has increased the disparity between the rich and the poor. These isolated and regions needs economic development in order to compete with their rich counterparts.

The adivasis living in these areas wants their rich forested lands whereas government want these lands for economic and business perspective. This conflict between tribes and government on natural resources fuels the Naxalite movements. The strongest base of naxalism is tribal belts such as Andhra Pradesh, Chattishgarh, Jharkhand and West Bengal where there is local acquisition of land reforms has been done. According to Arundhati Roy, a radical leftist the tribal belts and forestland should be called a MoUist corridor instead of the Maoist corridor as the tribes here are fighting with, memorandum of understanding(MOUs) of the mining companies.

Prashant Bhushan, a lawyer and civil rights activist said that due to the business and economic benefits, interest of adivasis are not sincerely considered. The alienation of these tribes are being exploited by Maoist and it has a social, cultural and political diversion to it. This is the battle between India’s most ignored, poor, deprived tribal population. The adivasis contributes to 8.4 percent of total Indian population. They live in remote lands and in severe poverty. In those area government and administration is weak and those is lack of governance and its services. These tribal People have highest infant mortality and have the lowest literacy rates in the country. Due to socio- economic alienation, it is easy to know why the naxalism is popular among the rural poor tribes and they see guerrilla as their saviours. Adivasis apparently appears to have no political power and voice to say their miseries that is the reason why these illegal and anti-national groups seems to appear attractive.

Basically the Naxalite got nothing to do with the socio-economic welfare of these vulnerable tribes and people and are simply using their sentiments to fulfil their goals and seizing political power. Due to naxalism a large part is being symmetrically marginalized and alienated from the mainland India. According to naxalism a large part is being systematically marginalized and alienated from the mainland India. According to Dr Subramanian Swami, the former director- general of the National security board and central reverse police force, he says that the reason for existence of naxalism in tribal belts is dissatisfaction of the people against the government and big business enterprises and theses areas are suitable for guerrilla tactics, and also there is no existence of a proper and effective local administration system. In these areas it is easy to spread warfare and radical extremist ideologies. In reality the Naxalites are using the tribes for their own ends, they are feeding on the problem of the adivasis. Because of the root cause in these areas Naxalite very easily creates environment of insecurity and violence.

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Submitted In The Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements For The Award Of The Degree. (2022, Apr 25). Retrieved from

Submitted In The Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements For The Award Of The Degree
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