How can you reduce fresh water scarcity in a country students name: oliver student id#: nbhs46048 teacher: mr. kumar due date: 26/5/2020 word count: 1471 contents abstract introduction methodology findings discussion 6 reference list 8 abstract the purpose of this study is to respond to the shortage of fresh water resources in kuwait. there are 5 main parts. in the introduction i explained this purpose of the study and the status of kuwaits freshwater resources. in terms of methodology i carried out a study on the precipitation and climatic geography of kuwait and used different data collection methods.
in the survey results i found two major freshwater problems and mentioned how to solve them scientifically. during the discussion i explained why global warming causes the shortage of fresh water.
In conclusion i suggest the citizens to save water in their daily life. introduction the purpose of this study is to identify solutions to kuwaits shortage of fresh water. in todays society more and more people are worried about how to solve the shortage of fresh water in china.
the salinity of fresh water is less than 0.5 g/l. there is 1.4 billion cubic kilometers of water on earth but only 2.53 percent of the worlds fresh water reserves are seawater with the remaining 97.37 percent. as a country bordering on the persian gulf kuwait has no rivers or lakes in its territory. therefore fresh water resources are expected to be very scarce. kuwait has a 290-kilometer coastline but the water is not potable and there is no fresh water so kuwait has been suffering from extreme water shortages.
moreover kuwait located on the arabian peninsula has a typical tropical sandy climate. the climate is hot and dry. the annual rainfall is less than 110mm while the annual evaporation is as high as 2 000mm.
In the face of such extreme water scarcity kuwait thought of exploiting groundwater which because of its proximity to the sea was too salty for direct drinking or irrigation. all human tissues are composed of water. water accounts for 80-85% in infancy 70-75% in adulthood and 60-65% in mid c can also balance the temperature of our bodies when the temperature of our surroundings is higher than that of our bodies. we use a lot of sweat to cool our body so we only use a lot of water. when the ambient temperature is less than our body temperature our body can choose to close the pores to reduce the evaporation of water. people can make a living a week without food but they can only live for three days without water. fresh water is very important in human life and biome such as irrigating farmland cooking industrial water. there are numerous ways to solve the water shortage.
It can turn polluted water into edible and useful water. tap water can only be disinfected by precipitation filtration and chlorine and river or groundwater can be simply processed into drinking water. chlorine in tapping water is effective at killing bacteria. with the development of science and technology we have been in a position to extract fresh water from seawater. kuwait has a 290-kilometer coastline and they can extract fresh water from seawater. finally i made an assumption that carbon dioxide levels caused a shortage of fresh water.methodology i conducted a study and experiment that presented data on fresh water supply and water distribution in kuwait in recent years. as part of the arid belt that straddles the middle east and north africa and which has no rivers or lakes kuwait has been plagued by a shortage of natural water.
During the summer months the average daily temperature in kuwait is above 40 c and sometimes over 50 c. kuwait is a desert country. there are only two seasons summer and winter and the summer is long and the winter is short. winter temperatures in kuwait are low but generally above 0 c. winter is the rainy season in kuwait but not much. rainfall in 1995/1996 was 337 millimeters compared with 88 millimeters in 1996/97.because of kuwaits dry climate the average annual rainfall is less than 200 milliliters but the annual evaporation is as high as 2000 millimeters. kuwaits average daily demand for fresh water in 2001 was 1.14 million cubic meters and peaked at 1.33 million cubic meters in july. at an average of 494 liters of fresh water per person per day in that year the annual average growth rate and current rate of freshwater consumption in kuwait are quite high compared with those in non-industrialized and other developing countries. these specific data are found in the reference list of websites which are very reliable.
I also found some important information and made a table showing the annual rainfall in kuwait.findings the main reason for the shortage of fresh water in kuwait is the lack of any rivers or lakes. and because of its proximity to the ocean their local groundwater is too salty to be employed directly for drinking water for daily use for agricultural irrigation or for industrial use. i think the kuwaiti solution to this problem is to determine a way to reduce the salinity in these groundwater and compare it to fresh water for people to live in. or you can distill seawater and with the development of science and technology you can now extract fresh water from seawater. and kuwait has a coastline of 290 kilometers and is abundant in seawater. if only the seawater can be successfully extracted however kuwaits shortage of fresh water can be largely solved. in addition residents need to have the awareness of saving water and improve the recycling of water to minimize the waste of water as much as possible. average annual precipitation in kuwait from 2005 to 2017 year rainfall（mm） 2005 187.6 2006 114.9 2007 77.1 2008 50.9 2009 47.8 2010 35 2011 64.7 2012 126.8 2013 117.9 2014 104 2015 97.8 2016 89 2017 52.
Discussion the greenhouse effect is part of the main causes of the shortage of fresh water. global warming has caused the adjustment of atmospheric circulation and the redistribution of rainfall making kuwait where the average annual temperature is elevated hotter which means that they use more water for daily life drinking water irrigation and other fields. to solve the problem of fresh water resources kuwait began shipping water in wooden barrels from the shatt-al-arab region of iraq in 1925.in 1939 a company was established to transport water from the shatt-al-arab with its fleet. by 1946 the company had a fleet of 45 containers carrying 363 500 liters of water a day. because of the abundance of fresh water in iraq the shipment of fresh water from iraq has further become one of kuwaits main solutions to the problem of water shortages.
In order to facilitate kuwaits access to fresh water from iraq i suggest that they build a pipeline to carry water between the two countries like chinas south-north water diversion project. another solution to freshwater problems is to desalinate seawater. with the first shipment of oil exported in 1946 kuwait entered the oil age and began investing in modern technologies for water production. in 1951 the kuwait oil company set up a small desalination plant at al-ahead that produced more than 30 000 liters of desalinated water a day some of which was piped to kuwait city which became the first country in the arabian gulf to introduce desalination technology. and over the next few years kuwait continued to be build desalination plants. kuwait now accounts for one tenth of the worlds total desalination volume with a daily desalination volume of up to 280 000 tons.
It has become world famous country that relies on desalination for fresh water resources. 5. conclusions and recommendations in short kuwaits approach has largely solved its shortage of fresh water. moreover for these hard-won innovative water resources the kuwaiti government has a very efficient and convenient management system. on the other hand the government has set up drinking water points in various residential areas to deliver drinking fresh water at regular intervals which has greatly reduced the waste of fresh water resources and ensured the utilization rate of fresh water resources. and kuwaiti citizens cherish this hard-won supply of wholesome water. [bookmark: _toc38989135]reference list annual rainfall in kuwait from 2005 to 2017 [online].