This framework provides an Inter-scalar workflow to support the design and testing of dynamic building envelopes that simultaneously respond to external environmental stimuli while incorporating occupants’ responses regarding their personalized comfort and preferences. The ultimate goal is to characterize the performance criteria and significance of interactive DBE systems that can leverage comfort metrics tailored to user preferences with different DBE adaptive response and envelope zoning, shifting away from the notion of DBE at the uniform performance. The body of experimentation presented provides a framework for addressing the research goals through three interconnected scopes of work: System Development The first scope of the research entails the co-design, co-development, and preliminary performance testing of a novel Intelligent façade simulator (IFS) system developed by an interdisciplinary team.
The design of IFS examines the application’s potential of hybrid reality that models decentralized daylighting and solar heat gain for occupants, with capabilities to report personalized comfort data and interact with other systems in the perimeter zone to provide interconnected thermal and visual controls.
Methodological Development The second and primary scope of the research involves the development of a new methodology that provides a computational decision-making tool to balance energy performance with occupants’ personalized comfort and preferences. In contrast to existing simulation tools and methods for design and evaluating deferent envelope systems according to human comfort factors, this computational approach critically addresses significant barriers with existing computational tools that are currently unable to simulate both a range of dynamic behavior of facade and its response to different visual and thermal preferences of people based on physiological and psychological feedback.
The proposed framework suggests a direction in which biometric indicators may drive participatory design and control strategies, whereby buildings actively respond to the occupant comfort and experience. Current Design Frameworks The current simulation tools address the multiple interactions of users, equipment and climate in different frameworks. In the past decade, simulation has played a more significant role in the design practice for gaining insight and evaluating different performance criteria, including risk, cost, energy efficiency, structural efficiency, lighting, and social utility. According to existing DBE system, there are four main design frameworks as follows: Performance-based framework for comfort and energy In these frameworks, environmental factors combined with internal factors, including occupancy and occupants’ comfort, are considered to design and optimize DBE performances.
The parametric design and grasshopper plugins, such as the Diva, Honeybee or Ladybug, are deployed for different performance-based workflows. A design framework to design and optimize the DBE is based on uniform visual and thermal comfort. This framework is composed of series code in a simulation workflow that works based on the external stimuli (sun position, solar intensity and solar heat gain) and the internal factors (occupancy schedule and user behavior) in which the probability of façade change by user is considered In this approach, different DBEs can be modeled and the performance can be optimized for the designer to select the best design solution among different scenario.
Multi-agent design framework In achitectural and urban design discourse, there exists a burgeoning interest in agent based modeling and simulation (ABMS) and in non-linear systems as a means to not only improve the design process but also to improve design exploration through adaptation and emergence, facilitating the production of higher performing design outcomes without reducing geometric intricacy. In architectural discourse, agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) and in non-linear systems are used to not only improve the design process but also to improve design exploration. In these frameworks introduced the application of a Multi-agent system MAS for a design approach that supports the integration of environmental performance data (available daylighting and energy efficiency) and user-related information (desired lighting) to inform the design decision making of a generative design process that leading to better performing design solutions.
The aim of this method was manifested into two section: to explore how designers impliment non deterministic processes where the precise definition of local rules could be combined with analytical tools in order to lead to globally optimized geometries that also embody user preferences, and to develop an integrated design methodology based on MAS that provided designers with not only geometric feedback of DBE but with multiple performance feedback and thus assisted them in generating and selecting among well performing design solution. User center design framework The user-centered approach is participatory design process that the end-user behavioral information plays significant role for the design and optimization of DBE. Heydarian and Pantazis (2017) introduced a framework as an example of user centered design that provided a systematic approach for collecting end-user behavioral information through the use of IVEs.
As it is shown in the case study, having access to such information can be used to improve the design of buildings according to the end-user preferences as well as other parameters of interest. In this research participants’ lighting preferences, performance (reading speed and comprehension), personality traits, and environmental views were collected in IVEs. And then the building performance simulation tools were used to translate participants’ lighting preferences into quantitative lux distributions, which were then used to evaluate alternative designs and make user-centered design decisions. • Bioresponsive These computational frameworks study human interaction with building envelope in the perimeter zone. In these approaches, the agency of occupants along with material behavior in design process is utilized and evaluated.
A good illustration appears in Breitmeyer (2016) study, which measured and assessed the environmental effects of human interaction with electroactive dynamic daylighting systems. This framework described the organization of software for preliminary design experiments with an immersive and interactive simulation environment that examine the performance characteristics of an electropolymeric building envelope system in relation to environmental performance and social criteria. And also the series of Algorithms were developed for the Electroactive Dynamic Daylighting System (EDDS) to address solar heat gain control and visible transmittance while adopting diverse occupant preferences and interactions for different visual effects.