Life on earth would not be possible without water because, Water is the driven force of nature. Human, plants and animals require an adequate and safe water supply. Inadequate quantity and unsafe quality of water supply is one of the major challenges in the world, particularly, in developing countries. At present, close to a billion people living in the developing world have no access to adequate and safe water, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia is ranking among the lowest to accessible quantity and quality water supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNICEF/, WHO 2012). Currently the Worlds water requirements to various purposes is increasing at an alarming rate in urban areas of both developed and developing countries. The main reasons are increase in urban population growth, increase of urbanization, industrial growth and expansion, agricultural development and increase per-capita water consumption rate. And it will reduce the quality of water in terms of its Physico-chemical and biological characteristics (Ahmad Zaharin et al., 2014).
According to Ethiopia’s Second Growth and Transformation Plan for water supply (GTP-2), (2015/16-2019/20) stated that provide urban access to water supply based on the density of the population served with minimum service level of 100 l/c/day for category-1 , 80 l/c/day for category-2, 60 l/c/day for category-3, 50 l/c/day for category-4, 40l/c/day for category-5 towns or cities within 250m and with a piped system for 75 percent of the urban population (Bank, World, 2017). But, the Arbaminch town is categorized under the category-2; however, the water supply accessibility is still lower than the GTP-2.
Most of the water supplies for domestic purpose in Arbaminch town and its surrounding areas are from underground water source mainly from spring water because of its abundance and no need of excessive treatment. However, nowadays the number of population is rapidly increasing form day year to year and also increase in urbanization and industrialization in the same way the need of safe and adequate water supply is also increased but, the local available water resource of Kulfo River are not utilized in an effective manner to improve the accessibility of water supply and develop the livelihood and socioeconomic standards of the surrounding inhabitants of Limat area. Therefore, In order to meet the water supply and demand of the study area using of available surface water such as Kulfo River as a source of water for drinking purpose after desirable treatment processes.
The land use land cover around Kulfo river catchment change from time to time due to increase in population in the Urban and rural areas, agricultural expansion and increase in industrial activates and it might be increase the chance of introduction of agricultural and industrial pollutants in to the river water that may affect the human health and environment. So that, to prevent the human health problems analysis of the quality of the water in Kulfo River and propose the water treatment unit required to meet the drinking water quality standard is the most important and priority issue. Therefore, limat kebelle will be use the available surface water of Kulfo River as a source of water for domestic purpose with appropriate surface water treatment requirement. In general the quality of treated drinking water will be completely free from pathogenic microorganisms, clear, aesthetically attractive, low turbidity and colour and meet within the recommended permissible limit of water quality standards.