Water is one of the most essential natural resource known in the world, covers around 80 percent of the earth’s surface and it is elixir of life without water life is not possible and it represents a fundamental requirement for all life activities and it is essential to human, plants and animals, but only small portion of the water in the world is available to manage human use (WHO; Anunan, et al., 1993).
Supply of water is among the most essential requisites for continuity of living things.
Water supply plays an important role in both social and economic development of a people and the availability and accessibility of adequate water supply with safe quality is the basic thing for improvement of public health, better living standard and economic development (Hofkes 1998, cited Yitayh, 2011).
Access to safe, clean and adequate water is a universal need and a basic human right, but majority of the world’s population or nearly a billion people living in the developed world does not have access to adequate and safe water and people might be forced to use unsafe water for drinking and other domestic purpose.
According to the world health organization more than 80 percent of the disease in the world are associated with unsafe drinking water (Woreda, 2018). In general the water supply coverage in towns of developing countries and African towns in particular is relatively lower while compared to the water demand (WHO and UNICEF, 2010).
This problem is also true for Ethiopian towns like Arba-minch. River water is the water that available on the surface play a vital in providing water resource for various purposes such as, for human, ecosystem survival and health.
River encompass the most important water resources for irrigation, industrial use and domestic water supply and other purposes in a watershed.
So the tends to simulate serious hygienic and ecological problems (Choo, 2015). Most of the quality of urban river water is might be affected by biological, chemical and physical parameters introduced by means of human (anthropogenic) activities, development of agricultural and livestock activities along the river and natural force (Mophin-Kani and Murugesan, 2011).
Generally, land use change contributes to increase pollutants through the agricultural runoff, sediment transport (erosion) in to the river and it makes the quality of water undesirable for domestic purpose. Water quality is managed by setting water quality standards, criteria’s and related legislation Water quality criteria, standards and related legislations to achieve the customer’s requirement.