Water is one of the most important resources for all livings beings in the earth .In a country like India where population is very huge , proper distribution and management of water is uneven . The ever- increasing demand for water resulting from economic development and population of the world requires constant pursuit of activities related to water management , ensuring the rational development and utilization of water resources , but also the development of devices and networks necessary to raise water supply in a sufficient quantity and quality.
This project is used to rationalize water supply to consumers , understanding losses and taking corrective decisions and also to build transparent , accountable and efficient water supply system.
PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
Providing sufficient water of appropriate quality and quantity has been one of the most important issues in human history .The main purpose of this project is to deliver water to consumer with appropriate quality , quantity ,and pressure. According to a survey , it’s observed that almost 1.
3 billion liters of water per day is demanded , but only 900m liters of water is supplied. Old and poorly constructed pipelines , inadequate corrosion protection , unauthorized connect, poorly maintained damage are some of the factors contributing to leakage , over flow , of water . If it is possible to save this water , almost required amount of water can be provided.
The arduino Uno is a microcontroller based on the ATmeda328(datasheet). It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs , a 16 MHz ceramic resonator , a USB connection , a power jack , an ISCP header , and a reset button . It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller ; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC- to DC adapter or battery to get started .
Uno means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0 . The Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino , moving forward . The UNO is the latest in series of USB Arduino boards , and the reference model for the Arduino platform.
The ATmega328 has 32KB (with 0.5KB used for the bootloader). It also has 2KB of SRAM and 1KB of EEPROM( which can be read and written with the EEPROM library).
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It is an LCD display designed for E-blocks . It is an 16 character, 2-line alphanumeric LCD display connected to a single 9-way D-type connector. This allows the device to be connected to most E-Block I/O ports.
The LCD display requires data in a serial format . The display also requires a 5V power supply . The potentiometer RV1 is a contrast that should be used to adjust the contrast of the display for the environment it is being used in.
To send a command to the LCD , data must be sent in two steps , the MSB followed by the LSB( byte is data on pins 1-4). As each byte is sent to the LCD , B5 must go high and then low , for the LCD to acknowledge the byte . After each second byte acknowledged the LCD executes the command.
NPN transistor are three-terminal , three-layer device that can function as either amplifier or electronic switches. An NPN ( Negative – Positive- Negative) type.
The construction and terminal voltage for a bipolar transistor are shown. The voltage between the base and emitter (VBE) is positive at rhe base and negative at the emitter because for an NPN transistor , base terminal is always positive with respect to the emitter . Also the collector supply voltage is positive with respect to the emitter (VCE) . So for a bipolar NPN transistor to conduct the collector is always more positive with respect to both the base and the emitter.
The collector is connected to voltage supply Vcc via the load resistor , RL which acts to limit the maximum current flowing through the device . In NPN transistor it is the movement of negative current carriers(electons) through the Base region that constitutes transistor action , since these mobile electrons provide the link between the collector and emitter circuits.
The current in a bipolar NPN transistor is the ratio of these two currents (lc/lb) , called the DC Current Gain of the device and is given by the symbol Beta.
A buzzer is an audio signalling device whuch may be mechanical , electromechanical , or piezoelectric . Typical uses of buzzers include alarm devices , timers , and confirmation of user input such as mouse click or a key store.
While technological advancments have caused buzzeres to be impractical and undesirable , there are still instances in whuch buzzers and similar circuits may be used. Peresent applications include:
Lamps are commonly called light bulbs. Lamps usually have a base made of ceramic , metal ,glass, plastic , which secures the lamp in the socket of a light fixture . The elecrtical components to the socket may be made with a screw – thread base , two metal pins , two metal caps . The three main categories of electric lights are incandescent lamps , which produce light by a filament heated white-hot by electric current , gas – discharge lamps, which produces light by means of an electric arc through a gas , and LED lamps , which produce light by a flow of electrons across a band gap in a semiconductor.
A potentiometer is a three terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used , one end and the wiper it acts as a variable resistor. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment . Potentiometer operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers .
The proteus design suite is a proprietary software tool suite used primarily for electronic design automation . The software is used mainly by electronic design engineers and technicians to create schematics and electronic prins for manufacturing printed circuit boards.
The first verion of what is now the proteus Design Suite was called PC-B. The proteus design suite is a windows application for schematic capture , simulation, PCB layout design. It can be purchased in many cnfiguration, depending on the size of designs being produced and the requirments for microcontroller simulation.
Schematic capture in the proteus design suite is used for both the simulation of designs and as the design phase of a PCB layout project . It is therefore a core component and is included with all product configurations .
Water from the source (i.e. river Cauvery) ,according to a survey almost 19TMC is needed but only 1.75TMC is distributed . 1250m liters of water per day is pumped to the city . The water is being sent to the main distribution system and from there further process of distribution takes place.
During the distribution process equal amount of water is not distributed to required places due to leakages , overflow, etc . , but to some places where the water requirement is less too much of water is being distributed and wastage of water takes places. As it is not properly monitored any damages caused is bought into the notice lately .
In advanced technology using latest methods to avoid wastage of water is bought using this project . In this project we use sensors , to detect the leakages , measure the flow rate of water and compares pressure between two sensors . All the data is being collected and stored in the data center. Due to this automated method we can detect any problems easily and immediate measures can be taken to avoid wastage of water .
A smart way of water management and distribution system integrates information and communication technologies. Sensors , meters , digital controls and analytic tools are used to automate , monitor , and control the transmission and distribution of water ensuring that water is efficiently delivered only when and where it is needed and with good quality .
We are using a solar panel and LDRs. We are using a servo motor which is used for rotating the solar panel North-South direction and East- West direction . Two sensors are used to rotate in East – West direction and two more is used in North – South direction .
When sunlight falls on the sensor it tries to escape from it and tries to obtain equilibrium position in case of both sensors this is in case of East-West direction . It is similar in case of North- South direction when rays falls on it ,it moves away from it . This is the working of Solar tracker.
During day LDR will be in off position . During night it will activate , load is connected to battery . When a shadow falls on LDR load is triggered and light glows.
Water management impacts on several key matters of human lives and several scenarios, such as cities , natural areas, agriculture, etc. The final outcome of the project is a smart system that monitors the problems in water distribution and management system and prevents wastage of water . Water distribution system is successfully implemented using which the problems like leakage and many more are detected . The project has given a cost effective solution for real time water leak detection and report generation .